Palestine (region)

Palestine (region) is located in Israel
  Boundaries of the Roman province Syria Palaestina, where dashed green line shows the boundary between Byzantine Palaestina Prima (later Jund Filastin) and Palaestina Secunda (later Jund al-Urdunn), as well as Palaestina Salutaris (later Jebel et-Tih and the Jifar)

  Borders of Mandatory Palestine

  Borders of the Palestinian territories (West Bank and Gaza Strip) which are claimed by the State of Palestine as its borders

Palestine (Arabic: فلسطينFilasṭīn, Falasṭīn, Filisṭīn; Greek: Παλαιστίνη, Palaistinē; Latin: Palaestina; Hebrew: פלשתינהPalestina) is a geographic region in Western Asia. It is usually considered to include the Gaza Strip, the West Bank, Israel, and in some definitions, some parts of western Jordan. The name was used by ancient Greek writers, and it was later used for the Roman province Syria Palaestina, the Byzantine Palaestina Prima, and the Islamic provincial district of Jund Filastin. The region comprises most of the territory claimed for the biblical regions known as the Land of Israel (Hebrew: ארץ־ישראלEretz-Yisra'el), the Holy Land or Promised Land. Historically, it has been known as the southern portion of wider regional designations such as Canaan, Syria, ash-Sham, and the Levant.

Situated at a strategic location between Egypt, Syria and Arabia, and the birthplace of Judaism and Christianity, the region has a long and tumultuous history as a crossroads for religion, culture, commerce, and politics. The region has been controlled by numerous peoples, including Ancient Egyptians, Canaanites, Israelites and Judeans, Assyrians, Babylonians, Achaemenids, ancient Greeks, the Jewish Hasmonean Kingdom, Romans, Parthians, Sasanians, Byzantines, the Arab Rashidun, Umayyad, Abbasid and Fatimid caliphates, Crusaders, Ayyubids, Mamluks, Mongols, Ottomans, the British, and modern Israelis, Jordanians, Egyptians and Palestinians.

The boundaries of the region have changed throughout history. Today, the region comprises the State of Israel and the Palestinian territories in which the State of Palestine was declared.

History of the name

The name is found throughout recorded history. Examples shown above are (1) Pomponius Mela (Latin, c.43 CE); (2) Notitia Dignitatum (Latin, c.410 CE); (3) Tabula Rogeriana (Arabic, 1154 CE); (4) Cedid Atlas (Ottoman Turkish, 1803 CE)

Modern archaeology has identified 12 ancient inscriptions from Egyptian and Assyrian records recording likely cognates of Hebrew Pelesheth. The term "Peleset" (transliterated from hieroglyphs as P-r-s-t) is found in five inscriptions referring to a neighboring people or land starting from c. 1150 BCE during the Twentieth dynasty of Egypt. The first known mention is at the temple at Medinet Habu which refers to the Peleset among those who fought with Egypt in Ramesses III's reign,[1][2] and the last known is 300 years later on Padiiset's Statue. Seven known Assyrian inscriptions refer to the region of "Palashtu" or "Pilistu", beginning with Adad-nirari III in the Nimrud Slab in c. 800 BCE through to a treaty made by Esarhaddon more than a century later.[3][4] Neither the Egyptian nor the Assyrian sources provided clear regional boundaries for the term.[i]

The first clear use of the term Palestine to refer to the entire area between Phoenicia and Egypt was in 5th century BCE Ancient Greece,[7][8] when Herodotus wrote of a "district of Syria, called Palaistinê" (Ancient Greek: Συρίη ἡ Παλαιστίνη καλεομένη)[9] in The Histories, which included the Judean mountains and the Jordan Rift Valley.[10][ii] Approximately a century later, Aristotle used a similar definition for the region in Meteorology, in which he included the Dead Sea.[12] Later Greek writers such as Polemon and Pausanias also used the term to refer to the same region, which was followed by Roman writers such as Ovid, Tibullus, Pomponius Mela, Pliny the Elder, Dio Chrysostom, Statius, Plutarch as well as Roman Judean writers Philo of Alexandria and Josephus.[13][14] The term was first used to denote an official province in c. 135 CE, when the Roman authorities, following the suppression of the Bar Kokhba Revolt, combined Iudaea Province with Galilee and the Paralia to form "Syria Palaestina". There is circumstantial evidence linking Hadrian with the name change,[15] but the precise date is not certain[15] and the assertion of some scholars that the name change was intended "to complete the dissociation with Judaea"[16] is disputed.[17]

The term is generally accepted to be a translation of the Biblical name Peleshet (פלשת Pəlésheth, usually transliterated as Philistia). The term and its derivates are used more than 250 times in Masoretic-derived versions of the Hebrew Bible, of which 10 uses are in the Torah, with undefined boundaries, and almost 200 of the remaining references are in the Book of Judges and the Books of Samuel.[3][4][13][18] The term is rarely used in the Septuagint, which used a transliteration Land of Phylistieim (Γῆ τῶν Φυλιστιείμ) different from the contemporary Greek place name Palaistínē (Παλαιστίνη).[17]

The Septuagint instead used the term "allophuloi" (άλλόφυλοι, "other nations") throughout the Books of Judges and Samuel,[19][20] such that the term "Philistines" has been interpreted to mean "non-Israelites of the Promised Land" when used in the context of Samson, Saul and David,[21] and Rabbinic sources explain that these peoples were different from the Philistines of the Book of Genesis.[22]

During the Byzantine period, the region of Palestine within Syria Palaestina was subdivided into Palaestina Prima and Secunda,[23] and an area of land including the Negev and Sinai became Palaestina Salutaris.[23] Following the Muslim conquest, place names that were in use by the Byzantine administration generally continued to be used in Arabic.[3][24] The use of the name "Palestine" became common in Early Modern English,[25] was used in English and Arabic during the Mutasarrifate of Jerusalem[26][27][iii] and was revived as an official place name with the British Mandate for Palestine.

Some other terms that have been used to refer to all or part of this land include Canaan, Land of Israel (Eretz Yisrael or Ha'aretz),[29][iv] the Promised Land, Greater Syria, the Holy Land, Iudaea Province, Judea, Coele-Syria,[v] "Israel HaShlema", Kingdom of Israel, Kingdom of Jerusalem, Zion, Retenu (Ancient Egyptian), Southern Syria, Southern Levant and Syria Palaestina.

Other Languages
Acèh: Palèstina
Alemannisch: Palästina
አማርኛ: ፍልስጤም
العربية: فلسطين
aragonés: Palestina
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܦܠܣܛܝܢ
asturianu: Palestina
azərbaycanca: Fələstin
تۆرکجه: فیلیسطین
Bân-lâm-gú: Palestine
башҡортса: Фәләстин
беларуская: Палесціна
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Палестына
български: Палестина
brezhoneg: Palestina
català: Palestina
Чӑвашла: Палестина
čeština: Palestina
Cymraeg: Palesteina
dansk: Palæstina
davvisámegiella: Palestiinná
Deitsch: Baaleschdi
Ελληνικά: Παλαιστίνη
Esperanto: Palestino
euskara: Palestina
فارسی: فلسطین
føroyskt: Palestina
français: Palestine
Frysk: Palestina
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Palestine
Hausa: Falasdinu
hrvatski: Palestina
Ilokano: Palestina
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: পালেসটিনা
Bahasa Indonesia: Palestina
interlingua: Palestina
Interlingue: Palestina
íslenska: Palestína
italiano: Palestina
עברית: ארץ ישראל
Basa Jawa: Palèstina
kalaallisut: Palæstina
къарачай-малкъар: Палестина
ქართული: პალესტინა
қазақша: Палестина
kernowek: Palestayn
Кыргызча: Палестина
Latina: Palaestina
latviešu: Palestīna
Lëtzebuergesch: Palestina
Ligure: Palestinna
македонски: Палестина
მარგალური: პალესტინა
مصرى: فلسطين
مازِرونی: فلسطین
Bahasa Melayu: Palestin
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Palestine
Nederlands: Palestina (regio)
日本語: パレスチナ
нохчийн: ПалестӀина
norsk nynorsk: Palestina
پنجابی: فلسطین
پښتو: فلسطين
polski: Palestyna
română: Palestina
Romani: Palestina
Runa Simi: Palistina
русский: Палестина
Gagana Samoa: Palesitina
Scots: Palestine
shqip: Palestina
sicilianu: Palistina
Simple English: Palestine
slovenščina: Palestina
Soomaaliga: Falastiin
کوردی: فەلەستین
српски / srpski: Палестина (регион)
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Palestina
svenska: Palestina
татарча/tatarça: Фәлистыйн
тоҷикӣ: Фаластин
Türkçe: Filistin
ᨅᨔ ᨕᨘᨁᨗ: Palestina
українська: Палестина
اردو: فلسطین
Tiếng Việt: Palestine (khu vực)
Winaray: Palestina
Wolof: Palestiin
ייִדיש: פאלעסטינע
Yorùbá: Palẹstínì
粵語: 巴勒斯坦