Pakistani English

Pakistani English or Paklish is the group of English language varieties spoken and written in Pakistan.[1] It was first so recognised and designated in the 1970s and 1980s.[2] Pakistani English (PE) is slightly different in respect to vocabulary, syntax, accent, spellings of some words and other features.

History

Although British rule in India lasted for almost two hundred years, the areas which lie in what is now Pakistan were amongst the last to be annexed: Sindh in 1843, Punjab (which initially included the North-West Frontier Province) in 1849, and parts of Baluchistan, including Quetta and the outer regions in 1879, while the rest of the Baluchistan region became a princely state within the British Indian Empire. As a result, English had less time to become part of local culture though it did become part of elite culture as it was used in elite schools and in higher education, as in the rest of British India.[3] The colonial policies which made English a marker of elite status and the language of power—being used in such domains of power as the civil service, the officer corps of the armed forces, the higher judiciary, universities, prestigious newspapers, radio and entertainment—was due to British policies[4]:22–58 and the continuation of these policies by Pakistani governments.[3]:288–323 In 1947 upon Pakistan's establishment, English became the de facto official language, a position which was formalised in the Constitution of Pakistan of 1973. Together with Urdu, the two languages are concurrently the official languages of the country. English language continues as the language of power and is also the language with the maximum cultural capital of any language used in Pakistan.[5] It remains much in demand in higher education in Pakistan.[6]