Pablo Picasso

Pablo Picasso
Portrait de Picasso, 1908.jpg
Picasso in 1908
Pablo Diego José Francisco de Paula Juan Nepomuceno María de los Remedios Cipriano de la Santísima Trinidad Ruiz y Picasso[1]

(1881-10-25)25 October 1881
Died8 April 1973(1973-04-08) (aged 91)
Mougins, France
Resting placeChâteau of Vauvenargues
43°33′15″N 5°36′16″E / 43°33′15″N 5°36′16″E / 43.554142; 5.604438
EducationJosé Ruiz y Blasco (father)
Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando
Known forPainting, drawing, sculpture, printmaking, ceramics, stage design, writing
Notable work
La Vie (1903)
Family of Saltimbanques (1905)
Les Demoiselles d'Avignon (1907)
Portrait of Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler (1910)
Girl before a Mirror (1932)
Le Rêve (1932)
Guernica (1937)
The Weeping Woman (1937)
MovementCubism, Surrealism
Olga Khokhlova
(m. 1918; d. 1955)

Jacqueline Roque
(m. 1961)
Partner(s)Marie-Thérèse Walter
Dora Maar
Françoise Gilot

Pablo Ruiz Picasso (UK: /, US: s-/,[2][3][4] Spanish: [ˈpaβlo piˈkaso]; 25 October 1881 – 8 April 1973) was a Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramicist, stage designer, poet and playwright who spent most of his adult life in France. Regarded as one of the most influential artists of the 20th century, he is known for co-founding the Cubist movement, the invention of constructed sculpture,[5][6] the co-invention of collage, and for the wide variety of styles that he helped develop and explore. Among his most famous works are the proto-Cubist Les Demoiselles d'Avignon (1907), and Guernica (1937), a dramatic portrayal of the bombing of Guernica by the German and Italian airforces during the Spanish Civil War.

Picasso demonstrated extraordinary artistic talent in his early years, painting in a naturalistic manner through his childhood and adolescence. During the first decade of the 20th century, his style changed as he experimented with different theories, techniques, and ideas. After 1906, the Fauvist work of the slightly older artist Henri Matisse motivated Picasso to explore more radical styles, beginning a fruitful rivalry between the two artists, who subsequently were often paired by critics as the leaders of modern art.[7][8][9][10]

Picasso's work is often categorized into periods. While the names of many of his later periods are debated, the most commonly accepted periods in his work are the Blue Period (1901–1904), the Rose Period (1904–1906), the African-influenced Period (1907–1909), Analytic Cubism (1909–1912), and Synthetic Cubism (1912–1919), also referred to as the Crystal period. Much of Picasso's work of the late 1910s and early 1920s is in a neoclassical style, and his work in the mid-1920s often has characteristics of Surrealism. His later work often combines elements of his earlier styles.

Exceptionally prolific throughout the course of his long life, Picasso achieved universal renown and immense fortune for his revolutionary artistic accomplishments, and became one of the best-known figures in 20th-century art.

Early life

Pablo Picasso with his sister Lola, 1889

Picasso was baptized Pablo Diego José Francisco de Paula Juan Nepomuceno María de los Remedios Cipriano de la Santísima Trinidad Ruiz y Picasso,[1] a series of names honouring various saints and relatives.[11] Ruiz y Picasso were included for his father and mother, respectively, as per Spanish tradition. Born in the city of Málaga in the Andalusian region of Spain, he was the first child of Don José Ruiz y Blasco (1838–1913) and María Picasso y López.[12] Though baptized a Catholic, Picasso would later become an atheist.[13]

The surname "Picasso" comes from Liguria, a coastal region of north-western Italy; its capital is Genoa.[14] There was a painter from the area named Matteo Picasso [fr] (1794–1879), born in Recco (Genoa), of late neoclassical style portraiture,[14] though investigations have not definitively determined his kinship with the branch of ancestors related to Pablo Picasso. The direct branch from Sori, Liguria (Genoa), can be traced back to Tommaso Picasso (1728–1813). His son Giovanni Battista, married to Isabella Musante, was Pablo's great-great-grandfather. Of this marriage was born Tommaso (Sori, 1787–Málaga, 1851). Pablo's maternal great-grandfather, Tommaso Picasso moved to Spain around 1807.[14]

Picasso's family was of middle-class background. His father was a painter who specialized in naturalistic depictions of birds and other game. For most of his life Ruiz was a professor of art at the School of Crafts and a curator of a local museum. Ruiz's ancestors were minor aristocrats.

Picasso showed a passion and a skill for drawing from an early age. According to his mother, his first words were "piz, piz", a shortening of lápiz, the Spanish word for "pencil".[15] From the age of seven, Picasso received formal artistic training from his father in figure drawing and oil painting. Ruiz was a traditional academic artist and instructor, who believed that proper training required disciplined copying of the masters, and drawing the human body from plaster casts and live models. His son became preoccupied with art to the detriment of his classwork.

The family moved to A Coruña in 1891, where his father became a professor at the School of Fine Arts. They stayed almost four years. On one occasion, the father found his son painting over his unfinished sketch of a pigeon. Observing the precision of his son's technique, an apocryphal story relates, Ruiz felt that the thirteen-year-old Picasso had surpassed him, and vowed to give up painting,[16] though paintings by him exist from later years.

In 1895, Picasso was traumatized when his seven-year-old sister, Conchita, died of diphtheria.[17] After her death, the family moved to Barcelona, where Ruiz took a position at its School of Fine Arts. Picasso thrived in the city, regarding it in times of sadness or nostalgia as his true home.[18] Ruiz persuaded the officials at the academy to allow his son to take an entrance exam for the advanced class. This process often took students a month, but Picasso completed it in a week, and the jury admitted him, at just 13. As a student, Picasso lacked discipline but made friendships that would affect him in later life. His father rented a small room for him close to home so he could work alone, yet he checked up on him numerous times a day, judging his drawings. The two argued frequently.[19]

Picasso's father and uncle decided to send the young artist to Madrid's Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando, the country's foremost art school.[18] At age 16, Picasso set off for the first time on his own, but he disliked formal instruction and stopped attending classes soon after enrollment. Madrid held many other attractions. The Prado housed paintings by Diego Velázquez, Francisco Goya, and Francisco Zurbarán. Picasso especially admired the works of El Greco; elements such as his elongated limbs, arresting colours, and mystical visages are echoed in Picasso's later work.[20]

Other Languages
Адыгэбзэ: Пабло Пикассо
Afrikaans: Pablo Picasso
Alemannisch: Pablo Picasso
አማርኛ: ፓብሎ ፒካሶ
العربية: بابلو بيكاسو
aragonés: Pablo Picasso
asturianu: Pablo Picasso
Avañe'ẽ: Pablo Picasso
Aymar aru: Pablo Picasso
azərbaycanca: Pablo Pikasso
Bân-lâm-gú: Pablo Picasso
башҡортса: Пабло Пикассо
беларуская: Пабла Пікаса
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Паблё Пікаса
Bikol Central: Pablo Picasso
Bislama: Pablo Picasso
български: Пабло Пикасо
Boarisch: Pablo Picasso
bosanski: Pablo Picasso
brezhoneg: Pablo Picasso
català: Pablo Picasso
čeština: Pablo Picasso
Cymraeg: Pablo Picasso
davvisámegiella: Pablo Picasso
Deutsch: Pablo Picasso
Ελληνικά: Πάμπλο Πικάσο
español: Pablo Picasso
Esperanto: Pablo Picasso
estremeñu: Pablo Picasso
euskara: Pablo Picasso
Fiji Hindi: Pablo Picasso
føroyskt: Pablo Picasso
français: Pablo Picasso
Gaeilge: Pablo Picasso
贛語: 畢加索
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: Pablo Picasso
Hawaiʻi: Pablo Picasso
հայերեն: Պաբլո Պիկասո
Արեւմտահայերէն: Փապլօ Փիքասօ
hrvatski: Pablo Picasso
Ilokano: Pablo Picasso
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: পাবলো পিকাসো
Bahasa Indonesia: Pablo Picasso
interlingua: Pablo Picasso
Interlingue: Pablo Picasso
isiZulu: Pablo Picasso
íslenska: Pablo Picasso
italiano: Pablo Picasso
Kabɩyɛ: Pablo Picasso
kalaallisut: Pablo Picasso
Kapampangan: Pablo Picasso
ქართული: პაბლო პიკასო
kernowek: Pablo Picasso
Kiswahili: Pablo Picasso
Kreyòl ayisyen: Pablo Picasso
Кыргызча: Пабло Пикассо
кырык мары: Пикассо, Пабло
لۊری شومالی: پابلو پیکاسو
latviešu: Pablo Pikaso
Lëtzebuergesch: Pablo Picasso
lietuvių: Pablo Picasso
Limburgs: Pablo Picasso
lingála: Pablo Picasso
Lingua Franca Nova: Pablo Picasso
Livvinkarjala: Pablo Picasso
lumbaart: Pablo Picasso
македонски: Пабло Пикасо
Malagasy: Pablo Picasso
მარგალური: პაბლო პიკასო
مازِرونی: پابلو پیکاسو
Bahasa Melayu: Pablo Picasso
Minangkabau: Pablo Picasso
Mirandés: Pablo Picasso
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ပီကာဆို
Nāhuatl: Pablo Picasso
Dorerin Naoero: Pablo Picasso
Nederlands: Pablo Picasso
नेपाल भाषा: पाब्लो पिकासो
Nordfriisk: Pablo Picasso
norsk nynorsk: Pablo Picasso
Nouormand: Pablo Picasso
occitan: Pablo Picasso
олык марий: Пикассо, Пабло
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Pablo Picasso
Pangasinan: Pablo Picasso
پنجابی: پیبلو پکاسو
پښتو: پيکاسو
ភាសាខ្មែរ: ប៉ាប្លូ ភីកាសូ
Piemontèis: Pablo Picasso
Plattdüütsch: Pablo Picasso
português: Pablo Picasso
Qaraqalpaqsha: Pablo Picasso
română: Pablo Picasso
rumantsch: Pablo Picasso
Runa Simi: Pablo Picasso
русиньскый: Пабло Пікассо
саха тыла: Пабло Пикассо
sicilianu: Pablu Picassu
Simple English: Pablo Picasso
slovenčina: Pablo Picasso
slovenščina: Pablo Picasso
ślůnski: Pablo Picasso
Soomaaliga: Bablo bekaso
српски / srpski: Пабло Пикасо
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Pablo Picasso
Basa Sunda: Pablo Picasso
svenska: Pablo Picasso
Tagalog: Pablo Picasso
Taqbaylit: Pablo Picasso
татарча/tatarça: Пабло Пикассо
Türkçe: Pablo Picasso
українська: Пабло Пікассо
Vahcuengh: Pablo Picasso
vèneto: Pablo Picasso
vepsän kel’: Pikasso Pablo
Tiếng Việt: Pablo Picasso
Volapük: Pablo Picasso
文言: 畢加索
West-Vlams: Pablo Picasso
Winaray: Pablo Picasso
吴语: 毕加索
Yorùbá: Pablo Picasso
粵語: 畢加索
žemaitėška: Pablos Pikasos