Oxygen

Oxygen,  8O
A transparent beaker containing a light blue fluid with gas bubbles
Liquid oxygen boiling
General properties
AllotropesO2, O3 (Ozone)
Appearancegas: colorless
liquid: pale blue
Standard atomic weight (Ar, standard)[15.9990315.99977] conventional: 15.999
Oxygen in the periodic table
HydrogenHelium
LithiumBerylliumBoronCarbonNitrogenOxygenFluorineNeon
SodiumMagnesiumAluminiumSiliconPhosphorusSulfurChlorineArgon
PotassiumCalciumScandiumTitaniumVanadiumChromiumManganeseIronCobaltNickelCopperZincGalliumGermaniumArsenicSeleniumBromineKrypton
RubidiumStrontiumYttriumZirconiumNiobiumMolybdenumTechnetiumRutheniumRhodiumPalladiumSilverCadmiumIndiumTinAntimonyTelluriumIodineXenon
CaesiumBariumLanthanumCeriumPraseodymiumNeodymiumPromethiumSamariumEuropiumGadoliniumTerbiumDysprosiumHolmiumErbiumThuliumYtterbiumLutetiumHafniumTantalumTungstenRheniumOsmiumIridiumPlatinumGoldMercury (element)ThalliumLeadBismuthPoloniumAstatineRadon
FranciumRadiumActiniumThoriumProtactiniumUraniumNeptuniumPlutoniumAmericiumCuriumBerkeliumCaliforniumEinsteiniumFermiumMendeleviumNobeliumLawrenciumRutherfordiumDubniumSeaborgiumBohriumHassiumMeitneriumDarmstadtiumRoentgeniumCoperniciumNihoniumFleroviumMoscoviumLivermoriumTennessineOganesson


O

S
nitrogenoxygenfluorine
Atomic number (Z)8
Groupgroup 16 (chalcogens)
Periodperiod 2
Element category  reactive nonmetal
Blockp-block
Electron configuration[He] 2s2 2p4
Electrons per shell
2, 6
Physical properties
Phase at STPgas
Melting point54.36 K ​(−218.79 °C, ​−361.82 °F)
Boiling point90.188 K ​(−182.962 °C, ​−297.332 °F)
Density (at STP)1.429 g/L
when liquid (at b.p.)1.141 g/cm3
Triple point54.361 K, ​0.1463 kPa
Critical point154.581 K, 5.043 MPa
Heat of fusion(O2) 0.444 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization(O2) 6.82 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity(O2) 29.378 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa)1101001 k10 k100 k
at T (K)   617390
Atomic properties
Oxidation states2, 1, −1, −2
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 3.44
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 1313.9 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 3388.3 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 5300.5 kJ/mol
  • (more)
Covalent radius66±2 pm
Van der Waals radius152 pm
Color lines in a spectral range
Miscellanea
Crystal structurecubic
Cubic crystal structure for oxygen
Speed of sound330 m/s (gas, at 27 °C)
Thermal conductivity26.58×10−3  W/(m·K)
Magnetic orderingparamagnetic
Magnetic susceptibility+3449.0·10−6 cm3/mol (293 K)[1]
CAS Number7782-44-7
History
DiscoveryCarl Wilhelm Scheele (1771)
Named byAntoine Lavoisier (1777)
Main isotopes of oxygen
Iso­topeAbun­danceHalf-life (t1/2)Decay modePro­duct
16O99.76%stable
17O0.04%stable
18O0.20%stable
| references | in Wikidata

Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8. It is a member of the chalcogen group on the periodic table, a highly reactive nonmetal, and an oxidizing agent that readily forms oxides with most elements as well as with other compounds. By mass, oxygen is the third-most abundant element in the universe, after hydrogen and helium. At standard temperature and pressure, two atoms of the element bind to form dioxygen, a colorless and odorless diatomic gas with the formula O
2
. Diatomic oxygen gas constitutes 20.8% of the Earth's atmosphere. As compounds including oxides, the element makes up almost half of the Earth's crust.

Dioxygen is used in cellular respiration and many major classes of organic molecules in living organisms contain oxygen, such as proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and fats, as do the major constituent inorganic compounds of animal shells, teeth, and bone. Most of the mass of living organisms is oxygen as a component of water, the major constituent of lifeforms. Oxygen is continuously replenished in Earth's atmosphere by photosynthesis, which uses the energy of sunlight to produce oxygen from water and carbon dioxide. Oxygen is too chemically reactive to remain a free element in air without being continuously replenished by the photosynthetic action of living organisms. Another form (allotrope) of oxygen, ozone (O
3
), strongly absorbs ultraviolet UVB radiation and the high-altitude ozone layer helps protect the biosphere from ultraviolet radiation. However, ozone present at the surface is a byproduct of smog and thus a pollutant.

Oxygen was isolated by Michael Sendivogius before 1604, but it is commonly believed that the element was discovered independently by Carl Wilhelm Scheele, in Uppsala, in 1773 or earlier, and Joseph Priestley in Wiltshire, in 1774. Priority is often given for Priestley because his work was published first. Priestley, however, called oxygen "dephlogisticated air", and did not recognize it as a chemical element. The name oxygen was coined in 1777 by Antoine Lavoisier, who first recognized oxygen as a chemical element and correctly characterized the role it plays in combustion.

Common uses of oxygen include production of steel, plastics and textiles, brazing, welding and cutting of steels and other metals, rocket propellant, oxygen therapy, and life support systems in aircraft, submarines, spaceflight and diving.

Etymology

The name oxygen was coined in 1777 by Antoine Lavoisier, whose experiments with oxygen helped to discredit the then-popular phlogiston theory of combustion and corrosion. Its name derives from the Greek roots ὀξύς oxys, "acid", literally "sharp", referring to the sour taste of acids and -γενής -genes, "producer", literally "begetter", because at the time of naming, it was mistakenly thought that all acids required oxygen in their composition.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Suurstof
Alemannisch: Sauerstoff
አማርኛ: ኦክሲጅን
Ænglisc: Æðmlyft
العربية: أكسجين
aragonés: Oxichén
armãneashti: Oxigenu
অসমীয়া: অম্লজান
asturianu: Oxíxenu
Avañe'ẽ: Tatarapo
azərbaycanca: Oksigen
تۆرکجه: اوکسیژن
বাংলা: অক্সিজেন
Bân-lâm-gú: Sng-sò͘
башҡортса: Кислород
беларуская: Кісларод
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Тлен
भोजपुरी: ऑक्सीजन
български: Кислород
Boarisch: Sauastoff
བོད་ཡིག: གསོ་རླུང་།
bosanski: Kisik
brezhoneg: Oksigen
català: Oxigen
Чӑвашла: Йӳçамăш
Cebuano: Oksihena
čeština: Kyslík
corsu: Ossigenu
Cymraeg: Ocsigen
dansk: Ilt
Deutsch: Sauerstoff
eesti: Hapnik
Ελληνικά: Οξυγόνο
español: Oxígeno
Esperanto: Oksigeno
euskara: Oxigeno
فارسی: اکسیژن
Fiji Hindi: Oxygen
føroyskt: Oxygen
français: Oxygène
Frysk: Soerstof
furlan: Ossigjen
Gaeilge: Ocsaigin
Gaelg: Ocsygien
Gàidhlig: Ogsaidean
galego: Osíxeno
贛語:
Gĩkũyũ: Oxygen
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: ऑक्सिजन
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Yông
хальмг: Оксиҗен
한국어: 산소
Hawaiʻi: ʻOkikene
Հայերեն: Թթվածին
हिन्दी: ऑक्सीजन
hornjoserbsce: Kislik
hrvatski: Kisik
Ido: Oxo
Ilokano: Oksiheno
Bahasa Indonesia: Oksigen
interlingua: Oxygeno
isiXhosa: I-oxygen
íslenska: Súrefni
italiano: Ossigeno
עברית: חמצן
Basa Jawa: Oksigèn
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಆಮ್ಲಜನಕ
Kapampangan: Oxygen
ქართული: ჟანგბადი
қазақша: Оттегі
Kiswahili: Oksijeni
Kreyòl ayisyen: Oksijèn
kurdî: Oksîjen
Кыргызча: Кычкылтек
кырык мары: Кислород
лезги: Кислород
Latina: Oxygenium
latviešu: Skābeklis
Lëtzebuergesch: Sauerstoff
lietuvių: Deguonis
Ligure: Oscigeno
Limburgs: Zuurstof
lingála: Oksijɛ́ní
Livvinkarjala: Happamehsuadu
la .lojban.: kijno
lumbaart: Osìgeno
magyar: Oxigén
македонски: Кислород
Malagasy: Ôksizenina
മലയാളം: ഓക്സിജൻ
Malti: Ossiġenu
Māori: Hāora
მარგალური: ჟანგბადი
Bahasa Melayu: Oksigen
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Iōng
мокшень: Шапафни
မြန်မာဘာသာ: အောက်စီဂျင်
Nāhuatl: Ehecayoh
Nederlands: Zuurstof (element)
नेपाली: प्राणवायु
नेपाल भाषा: अक्सिजन
日本語: 酸素
нохчийн: Мустлург
Nordfriisk: Sörstuf
norsk: Oksygen
norsk nynorsk: Oksygen
occitan: Oxigèn
олык марий: Шопештыш
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ଅମ୍ଳଜାନ
Oromoo: Ooksijiinii
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Kislorod
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਆਕਸੀਜਨ
पालि: अक्सिजन
پنجابی: آکسیجن
Papiamentu: Oksigeno
پښتو: اکسيجن
Patois: Axijen
Перем Коми: Шӧмувтыр
ភាសាខ្មែរ: អុកស៊ីសែន
Piemontèis: Ossìgen
Plattdüütsch: Suerstoff
polski: Tlen
português: Oxigénio
Ripoarisch: Sauerstoff
română: Oxigen
rumantsch: Oxigen
Runa Simi: Muksichaq
русиньскый: Оксиген
русский: Кислород
саха тыла: Кислород
sardu: Ossìgenu
Scots: Oxygen
Seeltersk: Suurstof
shqip: Oksigjeni
sicilianu: Ussìgginu
සිංහල: ඔක්සිජන්
Simple English: Oxygen
سنڌي: آڪسيجن
slovenčina: Kyslík
slovenščina: Kisik
Soomaaliga: Ogsajiin
کوردی: ئۆکسجین
српски / srpski: Кисеоник
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Kiseonik
Basa Sunda: Oksigén
suomi: Happi
svenska: Syre
Tagalog: Oksiheno
தமிழ்: ஆக்சிசன்
татарча/tatarça: Уттуар
తెలుగు: ఆక్సిజన్
тоҷикӣ: Оксиген
ತುಳು: ಆಮ್ಲಜನಕ
Türkçe: Oksijen
українська: Оксиген
اردو: آکسیجن
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: ئوكسىگېن
Vahcuengh: Yangj
vèneto: Osìgeno
vepsän kel’: Hapanik
Tiếng Việt: Ôxy
Volapük: Loxin
walon: Ocsidjinne
文言:
West-Vlams: Zuurstof
Winaray: Oksiheno
吴语:
ייִדיש: זויערשטאף
Yorùbá: Ọ́ksíjìn
粵語:
žemaitėška: Degounis
中文:
Kabɩyɛ: Ɔkɩsɩzɛnɩ