Ovary

Ovary
Ovary nih.jpg
The ovaries form part of the female reproductive system, and attach to the fallopian tubes
Gray589.png
Blood supply of the human female reproductive organs. The left ovary is the oval shaped structure visible above the label "ovarian arteries".
Details
SystemFemale reproductive system
Arteryovarian artery, uterine artery
Veinovarian vein
Nerveovarian plexus
LymphParaaortic lymph node
Identifiers
Latinovarium
D010053
A09.1.01.001
7209
Anatomical terminology

The ovary is an organ found in the female reproductive system that produces an ovum. When released, this travels down the fallopian tube into the uterus, where it may become fertilized by a sperm. There is an ovary (from Latin ovarium, meaning 'egg, nut') found on the left and right sides of the body. The ovaries also secrete hormones that play a role in the menstrual cycle and fertility. The ovary progresses through many stages beginning in the prenatal period through menopause. It is also an endocrine gland because of the various hormones that it secretes.[1]

Structure

The ovaries are considered the female gonads.[2] Each ovary is whitish in color and located alongside the lateral wall of the uterus in a region called the ovarian fossa. The ovarian fossa is the region that is bounded by the external iliac artery and in front of the ureter and the internal iliac artery. This area is about 4 cm x 3 cm x 2 cm in size.[3][4] The ovaries are surrounded by a capsule, and have an outer cortex and an inner medulla.[4]

Usually, ovulation occurs in one of the two ovaries releasing an egg each menstrual cycle; however, if there was a case where one ovary was absent or dysfunctional then the other ovary would continue providing eggs to be released without any changes in cycle length or frequency.[medical citation needed]

The side of the ovary closest to the fallopian tube is connected to it by infundibulopelvic ligament,[3] and the other side points downwards attached to the uterus via the ovarian ligament.

Other structures and tissues of the ovaries include the hilum.

Ligaments

The ovaries lie within the peritoneal cavity, on either side of the uterus, to which they are attached via a fibrous cord called the ovarian ligament. The ovaries are uncovered in the peritoneal cavity but are tethered to the body wall via the suspensory ligament of the ovary which is a posterior extension of the broad ligament of the uterus. The part of the broad ligament of the uterus that covers the ovary is known as the mesovarium.[4]

The ovarian pedicle is made up part of the fallopian tube, mesovarium, ovarian ligament, and ovarian blood vessels.[5]

Microanatomy

The surface of the ovaries is covered with membrane consisting of a lining of simple cuboidal-to-columnar shaped mesothelium.[6]

The outermost layer is called the germinal epithelium.

The outer layer is the ovarian cortex, consisting of ovarian follicles and stroma in between them. Included in the follicles are the cumulus oophorus, membrana granulosa (and the granulosa cells inside it), corona radiata, zona pellucida, and primary oocyte. Theca of follicle, antrum and liquor folliculi are also contained in the follicle. Also in the cortex is the corpus luteum derived from the follicles. The innermost layer is the ovarian medulla.[7] It can be hard to distinguish between the cortex and medulla, but follicles are usually not found in the medulla.

Follicular cells flat epithelial cells that originate from surface epithelium covering the ovary, are surrounded by Granulosa cells - that have changed from flat to cuboidal and proliferated to produce a stratified epithelium

Other

The ovary also contains blood vessels and lymphatics.[9]

Other Languages
Alemannisch: Eierstock
العربية: مبيض
asturianu: Ovariu
azərbaycanca: Yumurtalıq
български: Яйчник
bosanski: Jajnici
brezhoneg: Vigell
català: Ovari
čeština: Vaječník
chiShona: Makandiro
Cymraeg: Ofari
dansk: Æggestok
Deutsch: Eierstock
ދިވެހިބަސް: ބިސްރަވަ
eesti: Munasari
Ελληνικά: Ωοθήκη
español: Ovario
Esperanto: Ovario
euskara: Obulutegi
فارسی: تخمدان
français: Ovaire
Gaeilge: Ubhagán
galego: Ovario
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Lón-thoi
한국어: 난소
hrvatski: Jajnik
Ido: Ovario
Bahasa Indonesia: Ovarium
Interlingue: Ovarium
íslenska: Eggjastokkar
italiano: Ovaia
עברית: שחלה
Jawa: Ovarium
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಅಂಡಾಶಯ
қазақша: Аналық без
Kreyòl ayisyen: Ovè (plant)
kurdî: Hêkel
Latina: Ovarium
latviešu: Olnīca
lietuvių: Kiaušidė
magyar: Petefészek
македонски: Јајчник
മലയാളം: അണ്ഡാശയം
Bahasa Melayu: Ovari
Nederlands: Eierstok
नेपाली: डिम्बाशय
नेपाल भाषा: ओभरी
日本語: 卵巣
Napulitano: Spogna
norsk: Eggstokk
norsk nynorsk: Eggstokk
Novial: Ovarie
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ଡିମ୍ବାଶୟ
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Tuxumdon
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਅੰਡਕੋਸ਼
پنجابی: آنڈاتھیلی
polski: Jajnik
português: Ovário
română: Ovar
Runa Simi: Runtuchana
русский: Яичники
Scots: Ovary
sicilianu: Ovariu
Simple English: Ovary
slovenčina: Vaječník
slovenščina: Jajčnik
کوردی: ھێلکەدان
српски / srpski: Јајник
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Jajnici
suomi: Munasarja
svenska: Äggstock
Tagalog: Bahay-itlog
தமிழ்: சூலகம்
татарча/tatarça: Күкәйлек
తెలుగు: అండాశయము
Türkçe: Yumurtalık
українська: Яєчник
Vahcuengh: Rongzva
Tiếng Việt: Buồng trứng
Winaray: Obaryo
粵語: 卵巢
中文: 卵巢