Outremer

The Near East in 1135, with the Crusader states of Outremer marked with red crosses
Illustration from the Old French translation of Guillaume de Tyr's Histoire d'Outremer

Outremer (French: outre-mer, meaning "overseas") was a general name used for the Crusader states; it originated after victories of Europeans in the First Crusade and was applied to the County of Edessa, the Principality of Antioch, the County of Tripoli, and especially the Kingdom of Jerusalem. During the Renaissance, the term was later often equated to the area of the Levant and it remains synonymous for the Holy Land.[1]

The Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia originated before the Crusades, but it was granted the status of a kingdom by Pope Celestine III. It later became fully westernised by the French House of Lusignan.

In general, the French used this term to refer to any land "overseas". For example, King Louis IV of France was called "Louis d'Outremer", as he was raised in England.

In the Chanson de Roland, "Outremer" is used as the name of a fictional Muslim country. It is identified as one of the many countries participating in the general mobilization of the Muslim world against Christianity at the climax of the plot.

Present-day use

The modern term outre-mer, spelled with a hyphen and equally meaning "overseas," is used by the French government for the overseas departments and territories of France (in French: Départements d'outre-mer – Territoires d'outre-mer or DOM–TOM, collectively Pays et territoires d'outre-mer (PTOM)). It is also the name of a French catamaran manufacturer based in La Grande-Motte.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Outremer
čeština: Outremer
Deutsch: Outremer
Ελληνικά: Ουτρεμέρ
español: Outremer
Esperanto: Outremer
français: Outremer (État)
galego: Outremer
Bahasa Indonesia: Outremer
עברית: אוטרמר
lietuvių: Outremeras
Plattdüütsch: Outremer
polski: Outremer
português: Ultramar
русский: Утремер
slovenčina: Outremer
svenska: Outremer