In general, the French used this term to refer to any land "overseas". For example, King Louis IV of France was called "Louis d'Outremer", as he was raised in England.
In the Chanson de Roland, "Outremer" is used as the name of a fictional Muslim country. It is identified as one of the many countries participating in the general mobilization of the Muslim world against Christianity at the climax of the plot.
The modern term outre-mer, spelled with a hyphen and equally meaning "overseas," is used by the French government for the overseas departments and territories of France (in French: Départements d'outre-mer – Territoires d'outre-mer or DOM–TOM, collectively Pays et territoires d'outre-mer (PTOM)). It is also the name of a French catamaran manufacturer based in La Grande-Motte.