|دولت عليه عثمانیه|
Devlet-i ʿAlīye-i ʿOsmānīye
The Exalted Ottoman State
دولت ابد مدت
"The Eternal State"
The Ottoman Empire at its greatest extent in Europe, under Sultan Mehmed IV
in late 17th century.
| • ||c. 1299–1323/4||Osman I (first)|
| • ||1918–1922||Mehmed VI (last)|
| • ||1512–1520||Selim I (first)|
| • ||1922–1924||Abdülmecid II (last)|
| • ||1320–1331||Alaeddin Pasha (first)|
| • ||1920–1922||Ahmet Tevfik Pasha (last)|
| • ||Upper house||Senate|
| • ||Lower house||Chamber of Deputies|
| • ||Founded||c. 1299|
| • ||Interregnum||1402–1414|
| • ||Transformation to empire||1453|
| • ||1st Constitutional||1876–1878|
| • ||2nd Constitutional||1908–1920|
| • ||Raid on the Sublime Porte||23 January 1913|
| • ||Sultanate abolished[dn 3]||1 November 1922|
| • ||Republic of Turkey established[dn 4]||29 October 1923|
| • ||Caliphate abolished||3 March 1924|
| • ||1683 ||2,000,000 km2 (770,000 sq mi)|
| • ||1914 ||1,600,000 km2 (620,000 sq mi)|
| • ||1856 est.||35,350,000 |
| • ||1906 est.||20,884,000 |
| • ||1912 est.||24,000,000 |
|Currency||Akçe, Para, Sultani, Kuruş, Lira|
The Ottoman Empire (/ˈɒtəmən/; Devlet-i ʿAlīye-i ʿOsmānīye[dn 5]), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of southeastern Europe, western Asia and northern Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia in the town of Söğüt (modern-day Bilecik Province) by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman I. After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, and with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman Beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire. The Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror.
During the 16th and 17th centuries, at the height of its power under the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, the Ottoman Empire was a multinational, multilingual empire controlling most of Southeast Europe, parts of Central Europe, Western Asia, parts of Eastern Europe and the Caucasus, North Africa, and the Horn of Africa. At the beginning of the 17th century, the empire contained 32 provinces and numerous vassal states. Some of these were later absorbed into the Ottoman Empire, while others were granted various types of autonomy during the course of centuries.[dn 6]
With Constantinople as its capital and control of lands around the Mediterranean basin, the Ottoman Empire was at the centre of interactions between the Eastern and Western worlds for six centuries. While the empire was once thought to have entered a period of decline following the death of Suleiman the Magnificent, this view is no longer supported by the majority of academic historians. The empire continued to maintain a flexible and strong economy, society, and military throughout the seventeenth and much of the eighteenth century. However, during a long period of peace from 1740 to 1768, the Ottoman military system fell behind that of their European rivals, the Habsburg and Russian Empires. The Ottomans consequently suffered severe military defeats in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, which prompted them to initiate a comprehensive process of reform and modernisation known as the Tanzimat. Thus over the course of the nineteenth century the Ottoman state became vastly more powerful and organised, despite suffering further territorial losses, especially in the Balkans, where a number of new states emerged. The empire allied with Germany in the early 20th century, hoping to escape from the diplomatic isolation which had contributed to its recent territorial losses, and thus joined World War I on the side of the Central Powers. While the Empire was able to largely hold its own during the conflict, it was struggling with internal dissent, especially with the Arab Revolt in its Arabian holdings. During this time, major atrocities were committed by the Ottoman government against the Armenians, Assyrians and Pontic Greeks.
The Empire's defeat and the occupation of part of its territory by the Allied Powers in the aftermath of World War I resulted in its partitioning and the loss of its Middle Eastern territories, which were divided between the United Kingdom and France. The successful Turkish War of Independence against the occupying Allies led to the emergence of the Republic of Turkey in the Anatolian heartland and the abolition of the Ottoman monarchy.