Oslo

Oslo
Flag of Oslo
Flag
Motto(s): 
Unanimiter et constanter (Latin)
"United and constant"
Oslo is located in Norway
Oslo
Oslo
Location within Norway
Oslo is located in Europe
Oslo
Oslo
Location within Europe
Coordinates: 59°55′0″N 10°44′0″E / 59°55′0″N 10°44′0″E / 59.91667; 10.73333
Oslo kommune
Official logo of Oslo kommune
Oslo within
Norway
Oslo surrounded by Akershus county
Oslo surrounded by Akershus county
CountryNorway
Oslo
Time zoneUTC+01:00 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+02:00 (CEST)
ISO 3166 codeNO-0301
Official language formData from Statistics Norway

Oslo (/ OZ-loh, also US: / OSS-loh,[9][10] Norwegian: [²ʊʂlʊ] (About this soundlisten), rarely [²ʊslʊ, ˈʊʂlʊ]) is the capital and most populous city of Norway. It constitutes both a county and a municipality. Founded in the year 1040 as Ánslo, and established as a kaupstad or trading place in 1048 by Harald Hardrada, the city was elevated to a bishopric in 1070 and a capital under Haakon V of Norway around 1300. Personal unions with Denmark from 1397 to 1523 and again from 1536 to 1814 reduced its influence. After being destroyed by a fire in 1624, during the reign of King Christian IV, a new city was built closer to Akershus Fortress and named Christiania in the king's honour. It was established as a municipality (formannskapsdistrikt) on 1 January 1838. The city functioned as a co-official capital during the 1814 to 1905 Union between Sweden and Norway. In 1877, the city's name was respelled Kristiania in accordance with an official spelling reform – a change that was taken over by the municipal authorities only in 1897. In 1925 the city, after incorporating the village retaining its former name, was renamed Oslo.

Oslo is the economic and governmental centre of Norway. The city is also a hub of Norwegian trade, banking, industry and shipping. It is an important centre for maritime industries and maritime trade in Europe. The city is home to many companies within the maritime sector, some of which are among the world's largest shipping companies, shipbrokers and maritime insurance brokers. Oslo is a pilot city of the Council of Europe and the European Commission intercultural cities programme.

Oslo is considered a global city and was ranked "Beta World City" in studies carried out by the Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network in 2008.[11] It was ranked number one in terms of quality of life among European large cities in the European Cities of the Future 2012 report by fDi magazine.[12] A survey conducted by ECA International in 2011 placed Oslo as the second most expensive city in the world for living expenses after Tokyo.[13] In 2013 Oslo tied with the Australian city of Melbourne as the fourth most expensive city in the world, according to the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU)'s Worldwide Cost of Living study.[14]

As of 1 July 2017, the municipality of Oslo had a population of 672,061, while the population of the city's urban area of 3 December 2018 was 1,000,467.[4][15] The metropolitan area had an estimated population of 1.71 million.[16] The population was increasing at record rates during the early 2000s, making it the fastest growing major city in Europe at the time.[17] This growth stems for the most part from international immigration and related high birth rates, but also from intra-national migration. The immigrant population in the city is growing somewhat faster than the Norwegian population,[18] and in the city proper this is now more than 25% of the total population if immigrant parents are included.[19]

Urban region

As of 1 January 2016, the municipality of Oslo had a population of 658,390.[2] The urban area extends beyond the boundaries of the municipality into the surrounding county of Akershus (municipalities of Asker, Bærum, Fet, Enebakk, Rælingen, Lørenskog, Nittedal, Skedsmo, Ski, Sørum, Gjerdrum, Oppegård); the total population of this agglomeration is 1,000,467.[20][15] The city centre is situated at the end of the Oslofjord, from which point the city sprawls out in three distinct "corridors"—inland north-eastwards, and southwards along both sides of the fjord—which gives the urbanized area a shape reminiscent of an upside-down reclining "Y" (on maps, satellite pictures, or from high above the city).

To the north and east, wide forested hills (Marka) rise above the city giving the location the shape of a giant amphitheatre. The urban municipality (bykommune) of Oslo and county [fylke] of Oslo are two parts of the same entity, making Oslo the only city in Norway where two administrative levels are integrated. Of Oslo's total area, 130 km2 (50 sq mi) is built-up and 7 km2 (2.7 sq mi) is agricultural. The open areas within the built-up zone amount to 22 km2 (8.5 sq mi).[citation needed]

The city of Oslo was established as a municipality on 3 January 1838 (see formannskapsdistrikt). It was separated from the county of Akershus to become a county of its own in 1842. The rural municipality of Aker was merged with Oslo on 1 January 1948 (and simultaneously transferred from Akershus county to Oslo county). Furthermore, Oslo shares several important functions with Akershus county.

Boroughs

As defined in January 2004 by the city council[21][note]

Boroughs Inhabitants (2015)[22] Area in km² number
Alna 48,770 13.7 12
Bjerke 30,502 7.7 9
Frogner 55,965 8.3 5
Gamle Oslo 49,854 7.5 1
Grorud 27,283 8.2 10
Grünerløkka 54,701 4.8 2
Nordre Aker 49,337 13.6 8
Nordstrand 49,428 16.9 14
Sagene 39,918 3.1 3
St. Hanshaugen 36,218 3.6 4
Stovner 31,669 8.2 11
Søndre Nordstrand 37,913 18.4 15
Ullern 32,124 9 6
Vestre Aker 47,024 16.6 7
Østensjø 49,133 12.2 13
Overall 647,676 151.8

^ The definition has since been revised in the 2015 census.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Oslo
Alemannisch: Oslo
አማርኛ: ኦስሎ
Ænglisc: Oslo
العربية: أوسلو
aragonés: Oslo
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܐܘܣܠܘ
armãneashti: Oslo
arpetan: Oslo
asturianu: Oslu
авар: Осло
Aymar aru: Oslo
azərbaycanca: Oslo
বাংলা: অসলো
Bân-lâm-gú: Oslo
башҡортса: Осло
беларуская: Осла
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Осьлё
Bikol Central: Oslo
български: Осло
Boarisch: Oslo
བོད་ཡིག: ཨོ་སི་ལོ།
bosanski: Oslo
brezhoneg: Oslo
буряад: Осло
català: Oslo
Чӑвашла: Осло
Cebuano: Oslo
čeština: Oslo
chiShona: Oslo
chiTumbuka: Oslo
corsu: Oslu
Cymraeg: Oslo
dansk: Oslo
davvisámegiella: Oslo
Deitsch: Oslo
Deutsch: Oslo
dolnoserbski: Oslo
eesti: Oslo
Ελληνικά: Όσλο
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Òślo
эрзянь: Осло ош
español: Oslo
Esperanto: Oslo
estremeñu: Oslu
euskara: Oslo
eʋegbe: Oslo
فارسی: اسلو
Fiji Hindi: Oslo
føroyskt: Oslo
français: Oslo
Frysk: Oslo
Gaeilge: Osló
Gaelg: Oslo
Gagauz: Oslo
Gàidhlig: Oslo
galego: Oslo
ગુજરાતી: ઓસ્લો
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Oslo
한국어: 오슬로
Hausa: Oslo
Hawaiʻi: Oslo
հայերեն: Օսլո
हिन्दी: ओस्लो
hornjoserbsce: Oslo
hrvatski: Oslo
Ido: Oslo
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: ওসলো
Bahasa Indonesia: Oslo
interlingua: Oslo
Interlingue: Oslo
Ирон: Осло
íslenska: Ósló
italiano: Oslo
עברית: אוסלו
Jawa: Oslo
Kabɩyɛ: Ɔsɩloo
kalaallisut: Oslo
ქართული: ოსლო
kaszëbsczi: Oslo
қазақша: Осло
kernowek: Oslo
Kiswahili: Oslo
коми: Осло
Kreyòl ayisyen: Oslo
kurdî: Oslo
Кыргызча: Осло
кырык мары: Осло
Ladino: Oslo
لۊری شومالی: اوسلو
Latina: Osloa
latviešu: Oslo
Lëtzebuergesch: Oslo
лезги: Осло
lietuvių: Oslas
Ligure: Oslo
Limburgs: Oslo
lingála: Oslo
Livvinkarjala: Oslo
lumbaart: Oslo
magyar: Oslo
македонски: Осло
Malagasy: Oslo
മലയാളം: ഓസ്ലൊ
Malti: Oslo
Māori: Ōhoro
मराठी: ओस्लो
მარგალური: ოსლო
مصرى: اوسلو
مازِرونی: اسلو
Bahasa Melayu: Oslo
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Ó̤-sṳ̆-lṳ̆k
монгол: Осло
မြန်မာဘာသာ: အော့စလိုမြို့
Nāhuatl: Oslo
Dorerin Naoero: Oslo
Nederlands: Oslo
Nedersaksies: Oslo
नेपाली: ओस्लो
日本語: オスロ
нохчийн: Осло
Nordfriisk: Oslo
Norfuk / Pitkern: Oslo
norsk: Oslo
norsk nynorsk: Oslo
Novial: Oslo
occitan: Òslo
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ଅସଲୋ
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Oslo
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਓਸਲੋ
پنجابی: اوسلو
Papiamentu: Oslo
پښتو: اوسلو
Picard: Oslo
Piemontèis: Òslo
Tok Pisin: Oslo
Plattdüütsch: Oslo
polski: Oslo
português: Oslo
Qaraqalpaqsha: Oslo
qırımtatarca: Oslo
reo tahiti: Oslo
română: Oslo
rumantsch: Oslo
Runa Simi: Oslo
русиньскый: Осло
русский: Осло
саха тыла: Осло
sardu: Oslo
Scots: Oslo
shqip: Oslo
sicilianu: Oslu
Simple English: Oslo
slovenčina: Oslo
slovenščina: Oslo
ślůnski: Oslo
Soomaaliga: Oslo
کوردی: ئۆسلۆ
српски / srpski: Осло
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Oslo
suomi: Oslo
svenska: Oslo
Tagalog: Oslo
தமிழ்: ஒசுலோ
Taqbaylit: Oslo
татарча/tatarça: Осло
ไทย: ออสโล
тоҷикӣ: Осло
Türkçe: Oslo
Twi: Oslo
удмурт: Осло
українська: Осло
اردو: اوسلو
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: ئوسلو
vèneto: Oslo
vepsän kel’: Oslo
Tiếng Việt: Oslo
Volapük: Oslo
Võro: Oslo
Winaray: Oslo
Wolof: Oslo
吴语: 奥斯陆
Xitsonga: Oslo
ייִדיש: אסלא
Yorùbá: Oslo
粵語: 奧斯陸
Zazaki: Oslo
Zeêuws: Oslo
žemaitėška: Uoslos
中文: 奥斯陆