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Oscar Montelius, painted by Emerik Stenberg (Photo of painting from the Swedish periodical Ord & Bild 1913)
|Born||9 September 1843
|Died||4 November 1921
Gustav Oscar August Montelius, known as Oscar Montelius (9 September 1843 – 4 November 1921) was a
Oscar Montelius refined the concept of typology, a relative chronological dating method. Typology is the procedure of working out a chronology by arranging material remains of a cultural tradition in the order that produces the most consistent patterning of their cultural traits.  Typologies are the basis for seriation, a technique developed by Sir William Matthew Flinders Petrie based on his excavations in Egypt.
Montelius' impetus was at first to provide relative dates for artifacts in museum collections that often lacked rigorous records, by making comparisons with other artifacts within a comparable geographical area. Montelius’ method created a timeline specific to the location, based on material remains. Later, when combined with written historical references, objects could be provided absolute dates.
He took the
By taking calendrical dates from the recently deciphered