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In the Baroque period, it was common for performers to
Ornamentation may also be indicated by the composer. A number of standard ornaments (described below) are indicated with standard symbols in
Sometimes it is expected that the trill will end with a turn (by sounding the note below rather than the note above the principal note, immediately before the last sounding of the principal note), or some other variation. Such variations are often marked with a few grace notes following the note that bears the trill indication. The trill is indicated by either a tr or a tr~~, with the ~ representing the length of the trill, above the
At a moderate tempo, the above might be executed as follows:
There is also a single tone trill variously called trillo or
The upper mordent is indicated by a short thick
As with the trill, the exact speed with which the mordent is performed will vary according to the tempo of the piece, but, at a moderate tempo, the above might be executed as follows:
First bar of Goldberg Variation 7, first played with lower mordents, then without (134 KB)
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Confusion over the meaning of the unadorned word mordent has led to the modern terms upper and lower mordent being used, rather than mordent and inverted mordent. Practice, notation, and nomenclature vary widely for all of these ornaments; that is to say, whether, by including the
A turn is a short figure consisting of the note above the one indicated, the note itself, the note below the one indicated, and the note itself again. It is marked by a mirrored S-shape lying on its side above the staff.
The details of its execution depend partly on the exact placement of the turn mark. The following turns:
might be executed like this::
The exact speed at which the notes of a turn are executed can vary, as can its rhythm. The question of how a turn is best executed is largely one of context, convention, and taste. The lower and upper added notes may or may not be chromatically raised (see
An inverted turn (the note below the one indicated, the note itself, the note above it, and the note itself again) is usually indicated by putting a short vertical line through the normal turn sign, though sometimes the sign itself is turned upside down.
A passage with two phrases ending in appoggiaturas, followed by these phrases without them (160 KB)
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The Appoggiatura (
This may be executed as follows:
In the nineteenth century, the acciaccatura (sometimes called short appoggiatura) came to be a shorter variant of the long appoggiatura, where the delay of the principal note is quick. It is written using a grace note (often a quaver, or
The exact interpretation of this will vary according to the tempo of the piece, but the following is possible:
Whether the note should be played before or on the beat is largely a question of taste and performance practice. Exceptionally, the acciaccatura may be notated in the bar preceding the note to which it is attached, showing that it is to be played before the beat.[
The implication also varies with the composer and the period. For example,
A glissando is a slide from one note to another, signified by a wavy line connecting the two notes. All of the intervening diatonic or chromatic (depending on instrument and context) are heard, albeit very briefly. In this way, the glissando differs from
In contemporary classical music (especially in avant garde pieces) a glissando tends to assume the whole value of the initial note.
A slide (Schleifer in German) instructs the performer to begin one or two diatonic steps below the marked note and slide upward. The schleifer usually includes a prall trill or mordent trill at the end.
Willard A. Palmer wrote, "The schleifer is a 'sliding' ornament, usually used to fill in the gap between a note and the previous one."