Opuntia

Opuntia
Opuntia littoralis var vaseyi 4.jpg
Opuntia littoralis var. vaseyi
Scientific classification e
Kingdom:Plantae
Clade:Angiosperms
Clade:Eudicots
Order:Caryophyllales
Family:Cactaceae
Subfamily:Opuntioideae
Tribe:Opuntieae
Genus:Opuntia
Mill.
Species

Many, see text.

Synonyms

and see text

Opuntia, commonly called prickly pear, is a genus in the cactus family, Cactaceae.[1] Prickly pears are also known as tuna (fruit), sabra, nopal (paddle, plural nopales) from the Nahuatl word nōpalli for the pads, or nostle, from the Nahuatl word nōchtli for the fruit; or paddle cactus. The genus is named for the Ancient Greek city of Opus, where, according to Theophrastus, an edible plant grew and could be propagated by rooting its leaves.[2] The most common culinary species is the Indian fig opuntia (O. ficus-indica).

Description

Typical morphology of an Opuntia with fruit

O. ficus-indica is a large trunk-forming segmented cactus which may grow to 5–7 metres (16–23 ft) with a crown of possibly 3 metres (9.8 ft) in diameter and a trunk diameter of 1 metre (3.3 ft).[1] Cladodes (large pads) are green to blue-green, bearing few spines up to 2.5 centimetres (0.98 in) or may be spineless.[1] Prickly pears typically grow with flat, rounded cladodes (also called platyclades) containing large, smooth, fixed spines and small, hairlike prickles called glochids that readily adhere to skin or hair, then detach from the plant. The flowers are typically large, axillary, solitary, bisexual, and epiperigynous, with a perianth consisting of distinct, spirally arranged tepals and a hypanthium. The stamens are numerous and in spiral or whorled clusters, and the gynoecium has numerous inferior ovaries per carpel. Placentation is parietal, and the fruit is a berry with arillate seeds. Prickly pear species can vary greatly in habit; most are shrubs, but some, such as Opuntia echios of the Galápagos, are trees.

Ecology

O. ficus-indica thrives in regions with mild winters having a prolonged dry spell followed by hot summers with occasional rain and relatively low humidity.[1] A mean annual rainfall of 350–500 millimetres (14–20 in) provides good growth rates.[1] O. ficus-indica proliferates in various soils ranging from sub-acid to sub-alkaline, with clay content not exceeding 15-20% and the soil well-drained.[1] The shallow root system enables the plant to grow in shallow, loose soils, such as on mountain slopes.[1] Opuntia spreads into large clonal colonies, which contribute to its being considered a noxious weed in some places.[1][3]

Animals that eat Opuntia include the prickly pear island snail and Cyclura rock iguanas. The fruit are relished by many arid land animals, chiefly birds, which thus help distribute the seeds. Opuntia pathogens include the sac fungus Colletotrichum coccodes and Sammons' Opuntia virus. The ant Crematogaster opuntiae and the spider Theridion opuntia are named because of their association with prickly pear cacti.

Other Languages
العربية: صبير
asturianu: Opuntia
Avañe'ẽ: Urumbe
беларуская: Апунцыя
català: Opuntia
Cebuano: Opuntia
čeština: Opuncie
Deutsch: Opuntien
Diné bizaad: Hosh niteelí
Ελληνικά: Οπουντία
español: Opuntia
Esperanto: Opuntio
euskara: Opuntia
français: Opuntia
Հայերեն: Տատասկաթզենի
hornjoserbsce: Opuntija
hrvatski: Opuncija
Ido: Nopalo
Bahasa Indonesia: Opuntia
italiano: Opuntia
Basa Jawa: Opuntia
ქართული: ოპუნცია
қазақша: Опунция
lietuvių: Opuncija
magyar: Fügekaktusz
Nāhuatl: Nohpalli
Nederlands: Opuntia
norsk: Opuntia
پنجابی: چھتر تھور
polski: Opuncja
português: Opuntia
Runa Simi: Sintuq
русский: Опунция
Scots: Opuntia
Simple English: Prickly pear
తెలుగు: నాగజెముడు
Türkçe: Kaynanadili
українська: Опунція
Tiếng Việt: Opuntia
Winaray: Opuntia
中文: 仙人掌属