One Thousand and One Nights

Cassim in the cave by Maxfield Parrish, 1909, from the story Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves

One Thousand and One Nights (Arabic: أَلْف لَيْلَة وَلَيْلَة‎, translit. ʾAlf layla wa-layla)[1] is a collection of Middle Eastern folk tales compiled in Arabic during the Islamic Golden Age. It is often known in English as the Arabian Nights, from the first English-language edition (c. 1706 – c. 1721), which rendered the title as The Arabian Nights' Entertainment.[2]

The work was collected over many centuries by various authors, translators, and scholars across West, Central, and South Asia and North Africa. Some tales themselves trace their roots back to ancient and medieval Arabic, Persian, Greek, Indian, Jewish and Turkish[3] folklore and literature. In particular, many tales were originally folk stories from the Abbasid and Mamluk eras, while others, especially the frame story, are most probably drawn from the Pahlavi Persian work Hezār Afsān (Persian: هزار افسان‎, lit. A Thousand Tales), which in turn relied partly on Indian elements.[4]

What is common throughout all the editions of the Nights is the initial frame story of the ruler Shahryār and his wife Scheherazade and the framing device incorporated throughout the tales themselves. The stories proceed from this original tale; some are framed within other tales, while others begin and end of their own accord. Some editions contain only a few hundred nights, while others include 1,001 or more. The bulk of the text is in prose, although verse is occasionally used for songs and riddles and to express heightened emotion. Most of the poems are single couplets or quatrains, although some are longer.

Some of the stories commonly associated with The Nights, in particular "Aladdin's Wonderful Lamp", "Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves", and "The Seven Voyages of Sinbad the Sailor", were not part of The Nights in its original Arabic versions but were added to the collection by Antoine Galland and other European translators.[5]

Synopsis

Scheherazade and Shahryār by Ferdinand Keller, 1880

The main frame story concerns Shahryār (Arabic: شهريار‎, from Middle Persian šahr-dār, lit. "holder of realm"[6]), whom the narrator calls a "Sasanian king" ruling in "India and China".[7] Shahryār is shocked to learn that his brother's wife is unfaithful. Discovering that his own wife's infidelity has been even more flagrant, Shahryār has her killed. In his bitterness and grief, he decides that all women are the same. Shahryār begins to marry a succession of virgins only to execute each one the next morning, before she has a chance to dishonor him. Eventually the vizier, whose duty it is to provide them, cannot find any more virgins. Scheherazade (Arabic: شهرزاد‎, from Middle Persian čehr, "lineage" + āzād, "noble"[6][8]), the vizier's daughter, offers herself as the next bride and her father reluctantly agrees. On the night of their marriage, Scheherazade begins to tell the king a tale, but does not end it. The king, curious about how the story ends, is thus forced to postpone her execution in order to hear the conclusion. The next night, as soon as she finishes the tale, she begins another one, and the king, eager to hear the conclusion of that tale as well, postpones her execution once again. This goes on for one thousand and one nights, hence the name.

The tales vary widely: they include historical tales, love stories, tragedies, comedies, poems, burlesques, and various forms of erotica. Numerous stories depict jinns, ghouls, apes,[9] sorcerers, magicians, and legendary places, which are often intermingled with real people and geography, not always rationally. Common protagonists include the historical Abbasid caliph Harun al-Rashid, his Grand Vizier, Jafar al-Barmaki, and the famous poet Abu Nuwas, despite the fact that these figures lived some 200 years after the fall of the Sassanid Empire, in which the frame tale of Scheherazade is set. Sometimes a character in Scheherazade's tale will begin telling other characters a story of his own, and that story may have another one told within it, resulting in a richly layered narrative texture.

An Abbasid manuscript of the One Thousand and One Nights

The different versions have different individually detailed endings (in some Scheherazade asks for a pardon, in some the king sees their children and decides not to execute his wife, in some other things happen that make the king distracted) but they all end with the king giving his wife a pardon and sparing her life.

The narrator's standards for what constitutes a cliffhanger seem broader than in modern literature. While in many cases a story is cut off with the hero in danger of losing his life or another kind of deep trouble, in some parts of the full text Scheherazade stops her narration in the middle of an exposition of abstract philosophical principles or complex points of Islamic philosophy, and in one case during a detailed description of human anatomy according to Galen—and in all these cases turns out to be justified in her belief that the king's curiosity about the sequel would buy her another day of life.

Other Languages
azərbaycanca: Min bir gecə
Bân-lâm-gú: 1001 Mî
башҡортса: Мең дә бер кисә
беларуская: Тысяча і адна ноч
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Тысяча і адна ноч
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: Orbi Rati
한국어: 천일야화
हिन्दी: आलिफ़ लैला
Bahasa Indonesia: Seribu Satu Malam
interlingua: Mille e un noctes
қазақша: Мың бір түн
Kiswahili: Alfu Lela U Lela
Кыргызча: Миң бир түн
Lingua Franca Nova: Notes arabi
македонски: Илјада и една ноќ
नेपाली: अलफ लैला
नेपाल भाषा: अलिफ लैला व-लैला
norsk nynorsk: Tusen og ei natt
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Ming bir kecha
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਆਲਿਫ਼ ਲੈਲਾ
پنجابی: الف لیلہ
Qaraqalpaqsha: Mın' bir tu'n
русиньскый: Тісяча і єдна ніч
slovenčina: Tisíc a jedna noc
slovenščina: Tisoč in ena noč
српски / srpski: Хиљаду и једна ноћ
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: 1001 noć
татарча/tatarça: Meñ dä ber kiçä
తెలుగు: అలీఫ్ లైలా
Türkmençe: Müň bir gije
українська: Тисяча й одна ніч
Tiếng Việt: Nghìn lẻ một đêm
粵語: 天方夜談