Old Norse

Old Norse
Dǫnsk tunga ("Danish tongue")
Native toScandinavia
RegionNordic countries, Great Britain, Ireland, Isle of Man, Normandy, Newfoundland, the Volga and places in-between
EraEvolved from Proto Norse in the 8th century, developed into the various North Germanic languages by the 14th century
Early forms
Runic, later Latin (Old Norse alphabet)
Language codes
non
ISO 639-3non
oldn1244[1]
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Old Norse was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and inhabitants of their overseas settlements from about the 9th to the 13th century.

The Proto-Norse language developed into Old Norse by the 8th century, and Old Norse began to develop into the modern North Germanic languages in the mid- to late 14th century, ending the language phase known as Old Norse. These dates, however, are not absolute, since written Old Norse is found well into the 15th century.[2]

Old Norse was divided into three dialects: Old West Norse, Old East Norse, and Old Gutnish. Old West and East Norse formed a dialect continuum, with no clear geographical boundary between them. For example, Old East Norse traits were found in eastern Norway, although Old Norwegian is classified as Old West Norse, and Old West Norse traits were found in western Sweden. Most speakers spoke Old East Norse in what is present day Denmark and Sweden. Old Gutnish, the more obscure dialectal branch, is sometimes included in the Old East Norse dialect due to geographical associations. It developed its own unique features and shared in changes to both other branches.

The 12th-century Icelandic Gray Goose Laws state that Swedes, Norwegians, Icelanders, and Danes spoke the same language, dǫnsk tunga ("Danish tongue"; speakers of Old East Norse would have said dansk tunga). Another term, used especially commonly with reference to West Norse, was norrœnt mál or norrǿnt mál ("Nordic/Northern speech"). Today Old Norse has developed into the modern North Germanic languages Icelandic, Faroese, Norwegian, Danish, and Swedish, of which Norwegian, Danish and Swedish retain considerable mutual intelligibility.

Geographical distribution

The approximate extent of Old Norse and related languages in the early 10th century:
  Old West Norse dialect
  Old East Norse dialect
  Other Germanic languages with which Old Norse still retained some mutual intelligibility

Old Icelandic was very close to Old Norwegian, and together they formed the Old West Norse dialect, which was also spoken in settlements in Ireland, Scotland, the Isle of Man and northwest England, and in Norse settlements in Normandy.[3] The Old East Norse dialect was spoken in Denmark, Sweden, settlements in Kievan Rus',[4] eastern England, and Danish settlements in Normandy. The Old Gutnish dialect was spoken in Gotland and in various settlements in the East. In the 11th century, Old Norse was the most widely spoken European language, ranging from Vinland in the West to the Volga River in the East. In Kievan Rus', it survived the longest in Veliky Novgorod, probably lasting into the 13th century there.[4] The age of the Swedish-speaking population of Finland is strongly contested, but at latest by the time of the Second Swedish Crusade in the 13th century, Swedish settlement had spread the language into the region.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Oudnoors
asturianu: Nórdicu antiguu
azərbaycanca: Qədim skandinav dili
български: Нордически език
brezhoneg: Norseg
català: Nòrdic antic
français: Vieux norrois
Frysk: Aldnoarsk
íslenska: Fornnorræna
italiano: Lingua norrena
lumbaart: Nors antich
Nederlands: Oudnoords
Nedersaksies: Ooldnoors
日本語: 古ノルド語
occitan: Noroèc
Papiamentu: Nordico bieu
Scots: Auld Norse
Simple English: Old Norse language
slovenčina: Staroseverčina
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Staronordijski jezik
svenska: Fornnordiska
Türkçe: Eski Norsça
Tiếng Việt: Tiếng Bắc Âu cổ
West-Vlams: Oudnoors
中文: 古諾斯語