|Era||evolved into |
Old Catalan was the
It is believed that Old Catalan had two lateral palatal phonemes. One, /ʎ/, was written as ⟨ll⟩ and has remained unchanged. The other, reconstructed as /jl/, came from the Latin groups C'L, G'L, LE, and LI; written as ⟨yl⟩ and ⟨il⟩, it never appeared in initial position. It has merged into /ʎ/ in most dialects but into /j/ in a few dialects.
Around the 12th century, word-initial /l/ became /ʎ/, but it continued to be spelled as ⟨l⟩ until the 15th century.
/v/ began to merge into /b/ in some dialects around the 14th century, a process called
The system features a modification of the original Proto-Romance /e/ and /ɛ/. First, /e/ was centralized to /ə/ and then, /ɛ/ was raised to /e/. In Modern Central Catalan, stressed /ə/ has been fronted to /ɛ/, thus partially inverting the original Proto-Romance distribution still found in Italian and Portuguese. Balearic varieties still keep stressed /ə/.
It is assumed that during the preliterary period, all Catalan dialects featured a weak realization of the pretonic vowels. Around the 13th century, pretonic /a/ and /e/ began to be confused in writing in the Eastern dialects, and the confusion later spread to all unstressed instances of /a/ and /e/, a process that was almost complete by the 15th century.
Final post-tonic /e, o/ were lost during the formation of Catalan. According to some historic studies, final nasals were velarised and assimilated before being lost in Modern Catalan: [ˈpãŋ] → [ˈpã] → [ˈpa]).