Odessa

Odessa
Одесса (Russian)
Одеса (Ukrainian)
Counterclockwise: Monument to the Duc de Richelieu, Vorontsov Lighthouse, City garden, Opera and Ballet Theatre, Potemkin Stairs, Square de Richelieu
Counterclockwise: Monument to the Duc de Richelieu, Vorontsov Lighthouse, City garden, Opera and Ballet Theatre, Potemkin Stairs, Square de Richelieu
Flag of Odessa
Flag
Coat of arms of Odessa
Coat of arms
Official logo of Odessa
Logo
Odessa is located in Odessa Oblast
Odessa
Odessa
Location in Ukraine
Odessa is located in Ukraine
Odessa
Odessa
Odessa (Ukraine)
Coordinates: 46°29′8.6″N 30°44′36.4″E / 46°29′8.6″N 30°44′36.4″E / 46.485722; 30.743444
www.omr.gov.ua/en/
1Metropolitan area population as of 2001

Odessa (also known as Odesa; Ukrainian: Оде́са [ɔˈdɛsɐ]; Russian: Оде́сса [ɐˈdʲesə]; Yiddish: אַדעס‎) is the third most populous city of Ukraine and a major tourism center, seaport and transportation hub located on the northwestern shore of the Black Sea. It is also the administrative center of the Odessa Oblast and a multiethnic cultural center. Odessa is sometimes called the "pearl of the Black Sea",[2] the "South Capital" (under the Russian Empire and Soviet Union), and "Southern Palmyra".[3][citation needed]

Before the Tsarist establishment of Odessa, an ancient Greek settlement existed at its location as elsewhere along the northwestern Black Sea coast. A relatively more recent Tatar settlement was also founded at the location by Hacı I Giray, the Khan of Crimea in 1440 that was named after him as "Hacıbey".[4][citation needed] After a period of Lithuanian Grand Duchy control, Hacibey and surroundings became part of the domain of the Ottomans in 1529 and remained there until the empire's defeat in the Russo-Turkish War of 1792.

In 1794, the city of Odessa was founded by a decree of the Russian empress Catherine the Great. From 1819 to 1858, Odessa was a free port. During the Soviet period it was the most important port of trade in the Soviet Union and a Soviet naval base. On 1 January 2000, the Quarantine Pier at Odessa Commercial Sea Port was declared a free port and free economic zone for a period of 25 years.

During the 19th century, Odessa was the fourth largest city of Imperial Russia, after Moscow, Saint Petersburg and Warsaw.[5] Its historical architecture has a style more Mediterranean than Russian, having been heavily influenced by French and Italian styles. Some buildings are built in a mixture of different styles, including Art Nouveau, Renaissance and Classicist.[6]

Odessa is a warm-water port. The city of Odessa hosts both the Port of Odessa and Port Yuzhne, a significant oil terminal situated in the city's suburbs. Another notable port, Chornomorsk, is located in the same oblast, to the south-west of Odessa. Together they represent a major transport hub integrating with railways. Odessa's oil and chemical processing facilities are connected to Russian and European networks by strategic pipelines.

Name

The city was named in compliance with the Greek Plan of Catherine the Great. It was named after the ancient Greek city of Odessos, which was mistakenly believed to have been located here. Odessa is located in between the ancient Greek cities of Tyras and Olbia, different from the ancient Odessos's location further west along the coast, which is at present day Varna, Bulgaria.[7]

Catherine's secretary of state Adrian Gribovsky [ru] claimed in his memoirs that the name was his suggestion. Some expressed doubts about this claim, while others noted the reputation of Gribovsky as an honest and modest man.[8]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Odessa
አማርኛ: ኦዴሣ
العربية: أوديسا
aragonés: Odessa
asturianu: Odesa
azərbaycanca: Odessa
башҡортса: Одесса
беларуская: Адэса
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Адэса
български: Одеса
bosanski: Odesa
brezhoneg: Odesa
català: Odessa
Чӑвашла: Одесса
čeština: Oděsa
Cymraeg: Odessa
dansk: Odessa
Deutsch: Odessa
eesti: Odessa
Ελληνικά: Οδησσός
эрзянь: Одесса ош
español: Odesa
Esperanto: Odeso
euskara: Odesa
فارسی: اودسا
føroyskt: Odessa
français: Odessa
Gagauz: Odesa
galego: Odesa
한국어: 오데사
հայերեն: Օդեսա
hornjoserbsce: Odesa
hrvatski: Odesa
Ido: Odessa
Bahasa Indonesia: Odessa
Interlingue: Odessa
Ирон: Одессæ
íslenska: Ódessa
italiano: Odessa
עברית: אודסה
Basa Jawa: Odessa
kalaallisut: Odessa
ქართული: ოდესა
қазақша: Одесса
Кыргызча: Одесса
кырык мары: Одесса
Latina: Odessa
latviešu: Odesa
Lëtzebuergesch: Odessa
lietuvių: Odesa
Ligure: Odessa
lumbaart: Udessa
magyar: Odessza
македонски: Одеса
मराठी: ओदेसा
مصرى: اوديسا
Bahasa Melayu: Odessa
монгол: Одесс
မြန်မာဘာသာ: အိုဒက်ဆာမြို့
Nederlands: Odessa (stad)
日本語: オデッサ
нохчийн: Одесса
norsk: Odessa
norsk nynorsk: Odessa
occitan: Odessa
олык марий: Одесса
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Odessa
پنجابی: اودیسا
polski: Odessa
Ποντιακά: Οδησσός
português: Odessa
Qaraqalpaqsha: Odesa
qırımtatarca: Ades
română: Odesa
русиньскый: Одеса
русский: Одесса
саха тыла: Одесса
sardu: Odessa
Scots: Odessa
shqip: Odesa
sicilianu: Odessa
Simple English: Odessa
slovenčina: Odesa
slovenščina: Odesa
ślůnski: Uodesa
српски / srpski: Одеса
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Odesa
suomi: Odessa
svenska: Odessa
Tagalog: Odessa
தமிழ்: ஒடெசா
татарча/tatarça: Одесса
тоҷикӣ: Одесса
Türkçe: Odessa
Türkmençe: Odesa
тыва дыл: Одеса
удмурт: Одесса
українська: Одеса
اردو: اودیسا
vepsän kel’: Odess
Tiếng Việt: Odessa
Volapük: Odesa
Winaray: Odessa
ייִדיש: אדעס
粵語: 敖德薩
中文: 敖德薩