Number

A number is a mathematical object used to count, measure and also label. The original examples are the natural numbers 1, 2, 3, 4 and so forth.[1] A notational symbol that represents a number is called a numeral.[2] In addition to their use in counting and measuring, numerals are often used for labels (as with telephone numbers), for ordering (as with serial numbers), and for codes (as with ISBNs). In common usage, number may refer to a symbol, a word, or a mathematical abstraction.

In mathematics, the notion of number has been extended over the centuries to include 0,[3] negative numbers,[4] rational numbers such as 2 and 2/3, real numbers[5] such as 2 and π, and complex numbers,[6] which extend the real numbers by adding a −1.[4] Calculations with numbers are done with arithmetical operations, the most familiar being addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, and exponentiation. Their study or usage is called arithmetic. The same term may also refer to number theory, the study of the properties of numbers.

Besides their practical uses, numbers have cultural significance throughout the world.[7][8] For example, in Western society, the number 13 is regarded as unlucky, and "a million" may signify "a lot."[7] Though it is now regarded as pseudoscience, numerology, the belief in a mystical significance of numbers, permeated ancient and medieval thought.[9] Numerology heavily influenced the development of Greek mathematics, stimulating the investigation of many problems in number theory which are still of interest today.[9]

During the 19th century, mathematicians began to develop many different abstractions which share certain properties of numbers and may be seen as extending the concept. Among the first were the hypercomplex numbers, which consist of various extensions or modifications of the complex number system. Today, number systems are considered important special examples of much more general categories such as rings and fields, and the application of the term "number" is a matter of convention, without fundamental significance.[10]

Numerals

Numbers should be distinguished from numerals, the symbols used to represent numbers. The Egyptians invented the first ciphered numeral system, and the Greeks followed by mapping their counting numbers onto Ionian and Doric alphabets.[11] Roman numerals, a system that used combinations of letters from the Roman alphabet, remained dominant in Europe until the spread of the superior Arabic numeral system around the late 14th century, and the Arabic numeral system remains the most common system for representing numbers in the world today.[12] The key to the effectiveness of the system was the symbol for zero, which was developed by ancient Indian mathematicians around 500 AD.[12]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Getal
Alemannisch: Zahl
አማርኛ: ቁጥር
Ænglisc: Rīm
العربية: عدد
aragonés: Numero
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܡܢܝܢܐ
armãneashti: Numiru
অসমীয়া: সংখ্যা
asturianu: Númberu
Atikamekw: Akitasowin
Avañe'ẽ: Papaha
azərbaycanca: Ədəd
বাংলা: সংখ্যা
Bahasa Banjar: Wilangan
Bân-lâm-gú: Sò͘-ba̍k
башҡортса: Һан
беларуская: Лік
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Лік
български: Число
Boarisch: Zoih
བོད་ཡིག: གྲངས་ཀ།
bosanski: Broj
brezhoneg: Niver
буряад: Тоо
català: Nombre
Чӑвашла: Хисеп
čeština: Číslo
chiShona: Nhamba
Choctaw: Hohltina
Cymraeg: Rhif
dansk: Tal
Deutsch: Zahl
eesti: Arv
Ελληνικά: Αριθμός
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Nómmer
español: Número
Esperanto: Nombro
euskara: Zenbaki
فارسی: عدد
føroyskt: Tal
français: Nombre
Frysk: Getal
Fulfulde: Limle
Gaeilge: Uimhir
Gàidhlig: Àireamh
galego: Número
贛語:
хальмг: Тойг
한국어: 수 (수학)
հայերեն: Թիվ
हिन्दी: संख्या
hrvatski: Broj
Ido: Nombro
Ilokano: Numero
Bahasa Indonesia: Bilangan
interlingua: Numero
Ирон: Нымæц
isiXhosa: INANI
italiano: Numero
עברית: מספר
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಸಂಖ್ಯೆ
ქართული: რიცხვი
қазақша: Сан
Kiswahili: Namba
Kreyòl ayisyen: Nonm
kurdî: Hejmar
лакку: Аьдад
ລາວ: ຈຳນວນ
Latina: Numerus
latviešu: Skaitlis
Lëtzebuergesch: Zuel
lietuvių: Skaičius
Limburgs: Getal
la .lojban.: namcu
Luganda: Ennamba
magyar: Szám
मैथिली: अंक
македонски: Број
Malagasy: Isa
മലയാളം: സംഖ്യ
मराठी: संख्या
Bahasa Melayu: Nombor
Mirandés: Númaro
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ကိန်း
Nāhuatl: Tlapōhualli
Nederlands: Getal (wiskunde)
नेपाली: अंक
नेपाल भाषा: ल्याः
日本語:
Nordfriisk: Taal
norsk: Tall
norsk nynorsk: Tal
Nouormand: Neunmétho
Novial: Nombre
occitan: Nombre
олык марий: Шотпал
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Son
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਅੰਕ
Pangasinan: Numero
پنجابی: نمبر
پښتو: عدد
Patois: Nomba
Plattdüütsch: Tahl
polski: Liczba
português: Número
română: Număr
Runa Simi: Yupay
русиньскый: Чісло
русский: Число
саха тыла: Ахсаан
संस्कृतम्: संख्याः
Sängö: Nömörö
Scots: Nummer
Sesotho sa Leboa: Nomoro
shqip: Numri
sicilianu: Nùmmuru
Simple English: Number
slovenščina: Število
ślůnski: Nůmera
Soomaaliga: Tiro
کوردی: ژمارە
српски / srpski: Број
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Broj
Basa Sunda: Wilangan
suomi: Luku
svenska: Tal
Tagalog: Bilang
தமிழ்: எண்
Taqbaylit: Amḍan
tarandíne: Numere
татарча/tatarça: Сан
తెలుగు: సంఖ్య
ไทย: จำนวน
ትግርኛ: ቁጽሪ
тоҷикӣ: Адад
ತುಳು: ಸಂಖ್ಯೆ
Türkçe: Sayı
Türkmençe: San
українська: Число
اردو: عدد
vèneto: Nùmaro
Tiếng Việt: Số
Võro: Arv
文言:
Winaray: Ihap
吴语:
Xitsonga: Nomboro
ייִדיש: צאל
Yorùbá: Nọ́mbà
粵語:
žemaitėška: Skaitlios
中文:
डोटेली: अंका
Lingua Franca Nova: Numero