There is ongoing violence in
Rakhine State, which has involved clashes between the government and Rohingya militants. The government has also cracked down on
civilians — with security forces killing many civilians and burning down Rohingya villages.
 Myanmar security forces have raped Rohingya women and tortured Rohingya men, according to reports from the
 and several NGOs working in the area.
 Myanmar denies that there is a systematic campaign of rape, though acknowledges it may have been committed by "individual members of the security forces".
 As a result, hundreds of thousands have fled Myanmar, mostly into Bangladesh.
Rohingya minority in the region has historically experienced
persecution from the Buddhist majority in the country.
A series of clashes have occurred in
Rakhine State between insurgents of the
Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army (ARSA) and Myanmar's security forces. In October 2016, ARSA insurgents attacked Burmese border posts along the
Myanmar border. In response, Myanmar authorities launched a military campaign against the Rohingya. From October 2016 to June 2017, government operations killed more than 1,000 Rohingya civilians, according to UN officials.
Following attacks on local military outposts by ARSA rebels, which resulted in the deaths of several security personnel, on 25 August 2017, a resurgence in violence erupted throughout northern Rakhine. According to the UN and other agencies, the Myanmar military, aided by violent mobs of local Buddhist Rakhines, responded with a massive retaliation, killing over 400 people (whom it claimed were "insurgents" or "terrorists"). Other estimates have the number as high as 1,000+, including the UN estimate of at least 1,000 deaths between August 25 and September 8.
 By September, the violence had resulted in 389,000 Rohingyas fleeing their homes.
The ongoing violence has displaced hundreds of thousands of Rohingya. The situation has been described as
ethnic cleansing by the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights.
 As of January 2017, 69,000 Rohingya had fled to Bangladesh and 23,000 were internally displaced. An additional 370,000 Rohingya fled to Bangladesh between August and September 2017.
 Reports of
other human rights violations have also emerged.
Foreign leaders, including the
United Nations Secretary General and other high UN officials, and the
United Nations Security Council — while acknowledging the initial attack by Rohingya insurgents — have strongly criticized the Myanmar government's conduct in the current conflict, calling for the Myanmar government to restrain its forces and factions, and stop attacking civilians.