North Sea Germanic
|North Sea Germanic|
|Originally the |
Ingvaeonic is named after the
The grouping was first proposed in Nordgermanen und Alemannen (1942) by German linguist and philologist
Linguistic evidence for Ingvaeonic are common innovations observed in Old Frisian, Old English and Old Saxon such as the following:
Several, but not all, of the characteristics are also found in Dutch. It did not generally undergo the nasal spirant law (except for a few words), it kept the three plural endings distinct and it did not have the -s plural. However, it underwent near-full monophthongisation (some instances of -ei- persisted), lost the reflexive pronoun (even if it later regained it by borrowing) and had the same four relic verbs in weak class 3.