The North Pole, also known as the Geographic North Pole or Terrestrial North Pole, is (subject to the caveats explained below) defined as the point in the
Northern Hemisphere where the
Earth's axis of rotation meets its surface.
The North Pole is the northernmost point on the Earth, lying diametrically opposite the
South Pole. It defines geodetic
latitude 90° North, as well as the direction of
true north. At the North Pole all directions point south; all lines of
longitude converge there, so its longitude can be defined as any degree value. Along tight latitude circles, counterclockwise is east and clockwise is west. The North Pole is at the center of the Northern Hemisphere.
While the South Pole lies on a continental
land mass, the North Pole is located in the middle of the
Arctic Ocean amid waters that are almost permanently covered with constantly shifting
sea ice. This makes it impractical to construct a permanent station at the North Pole (
unlike the South Pole). However, the
Soviet Union, and later
Russia, constructed a number of
manned drifting stations on a generally annual basis since 1937, some of which have passed over or very close to the Pole. Since 2002, the Russians have also annually established a base,
Barneo, close to the Pole. This operates for a few weeks during early spring. Studies in the 2000s predicted that the North Pole may become seasonally ice-free because of
Arctic ice shrinkage, with timescales varying from 2016
 to the late 21st century or later.
The sea depth at the North Pole has been measured at 4,261 m (13,980 ft) by the Russian
Mir submersible in
 and at 4,087 m (13,410 ft) by
USS Nautilus in 1958.
 The nearest land is usually said to be
Kaffeklubben Island, off the northern coast of
Greenland about 700 km (430 mi) away, though some perhaps semi permanent gravel banks lie slightly closer. The nearest permanently inhabited place is
Alert in the
Qikiqtaaluk Region, Nunavut, Canada, which is located 817 km (508 mi) from the Pole.