North Holland

North Holland
Noord-Holland
Province of the Netherlands
Flag of North Holland
Flag
Coat of arms of North Holland
Coat of arms
Anthem: "Noord-Hollands Volkslied"[1]
(Anthem of North Holland)
Location of North Holland in the Netherlands
Location of North Holland in the Netherlands
Coordinates: 52°40′N 4°50′E / 52°40′N 4°50′E / 52.667; 4.833
CountryNetherlands
Established1840 (split-up of Holland)
CapitalHaarlem
Largest cityAmsterdam
Government
 • King's CommissionerJohan Remkes (VVD)
Area
 • Total2,670 km2 (1,030 sq mi)
 • Water1,421 km2 (549 sq mi)
Area rank6th nationally
Population (1 January 2015)
 • Total2,762,163
 • Rank2nd nationally
 • Density1,000/km2 (2,700/sq mi)
 • Density rank2nd nationally
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
ISO 3166 codeNL-NH
GDP (nominal)[2]2015
 - Total€142 billion/ USD 168 billion
 - Per capita€51,000/ USD 60,000[3]
Websitewww.noord-holland.nl

North Holland (Dutch: Noord-Holland [ˌnoːrt ˈɦɔlɑnt] (About this sound listen), West Frisian Dutch: Noard-Holland) is a province of the Netherlands located in the northwestern part of the country. It is situated on the North Sea, north of South Holland and Utrecht, and west of Friesland and Flevoland. In 2015, it had a population of 2,762,163[4] and a total area of 2,670 km2 (1,030 sq mi).

From the 9th to the 16th century, the area was an integral part of the County of Holland. During this period West Friesland was incorporated. In the 17th and 18th century, the area was part of the province of Holland and commonly known as the Noorderkwartier (English: "Northern Quarter"). In 1840, the province of Holland was split into the two provinces of North Holland and South Holland. In 1855, the Haarlemmermeer was drained and turned into land.

The capital and seat of the provincial government is Haarlem, and the province's largest city is the Netherlands' capital Amsterdam. The King's Commissioner of North Holland is Johan Remkes, serving since 2010. There are 51 municipalities and three (including parts of) water boards in the province.

History

Government house of North Holland province, Villa Welgelegen, in Haarlem

Emergence of a new province (1795 to 1840)

The province of North Holland as it is today has its origins in the period of French rule from 1795 to 1813. This was a time of bewildering changes to the Dutch system of provinces. In 1795, the old order was swept away and the Batavian Republic was established. In the Constitution enacted on 23 April 1798, the old borders were radically changed. The republic was reorganised into eight departments (département) with roughly equal populations. Holland was split up into five departments named "Texel", "Amstel", "Delf", "Schelde en Maas", and "Rijn". The first three of these lay within the borders of the old Holland; the latter two were made up of parts of different provinces. In 1801 the old borders were restored when the department of Holland was created. This reorganisation had been short-lived, but it gave birth to the concept of breaking up Holland and making it a less powerful province.

In 1807, Holland was reorganised. This time the two departments were called "Amstelland" (corresponding to the modern province of North Holland) and "Maasland" (corresponding to the modern province of South Holland). This also did not last long. In 1810, all the Dutch provinces were integrated into the French Empire. Amstelland and Utrecht were amalgamated as the department of "Zuiderzee" (Zuyderzée in French) and Maasland was renamed "Monden van de Maas" (Bouches-de-la-Meuse in French).

After the defeat of the French in 1813, this organisation remained unchanged for a year or so. When the 1814 Constitution was introduced, the country was reorganised as provinces and regions (landschappen). Zuiderzee and Monden van de Maas were reunited as the province of "Holland". One of the ministers on the constitutional committee (van Maanen) suggested that the old name "Holland and West Friesland" be reintroduced to respect the feelings of the people of that region. This proposal was rejected.

However, the division was not totally reversed. When the province of Holland was re-established in 1814, it was given two governors, one for the former department of Amstelland (area that is now North Holland) and one for the former department of Maasland (now South Holland). Even though the province had been reunited, the two areas were still being treated differently in some ways and the idea of dividing Holland remained alive. During this reorganisation the islands of Vlieland and Terschelling were returned to Holland and parts of "Hollands Brabant" (including "Land of Altena") went to North Brabant. The borders with Utrecht and Gelderland were definitively set in 1820.

When the constitutional amendments were introduced in 1840, it was decided to split Holland once again, this time into two provinces called "North Holland" and "South Holland". The need for this was not felt in South Holland or in West Friesland (which feared the dominance of Amsterdam). The impetus came largely from Amsterdam, which still resented the 1838 relocation of the court of appeal to The Hague in South Holland.

Urbanisation and economic growth (1840 to today)

After the Haarlemmermeer was drained in 1855 and turned into arable land, it was made part of North Holland. In exchange, South Holland received the greater part of the municipality of Leimuiden in 1864. In 1942, the islands Vlieland and Terschelling went back to the province of Friesland. In 1950, the former island Urk was ceded to the province of Overijssel.

In February 2011, North Holland, together with the provinces of Utrecht and Flevoland, showed a desire to investigate the feasibility of a merger between the three provinces.[5] This has been positively received by the First Rutte cabinet, for the desire to create one Randstad province has already been mentioned in the coalition agreement.[6] The province of South Holland, part of the Randstad urban area, visioned to be part of the Randstad province,[7] and very much supportive of the idea of a merger into one province,[8] is not named. With or without South Holland, if created, the new province would be the largest in the Netherlands in both area and population.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Noord-Holland
العربية: شمال-هولندا
azərbaycanca: Şimali Hollandiya
Bân-lâm-gú: Pak-Holland Séng
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Паўночная Галяндыя
brezhoneg: Noord-Holland
chiShona: North Holland
Cymraeg: Noord-Holland
Deutsch: Nordholland
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Ulànda Setentriunàla
Esperanto: Norda Holando
euskara: Ipar Holanda
føroyskt: Noord-Holland
Gàidhlig: Noord-Holland
Bahasa Indonesia: Holland Utara
interlingua: Hollanda del Nord
íslenska: Norður-Holland
Basa Jawa: Holland Lor
Kiswahili: Noord-Holland
latviešu: Ziemeļholande
Lëtzebuergesch: Provënz Nordholland
Limburgs: Noord-Holland
македонски: Северна Холандија
Bahasa Melayu: Holland Utara
Baso Minangkabau: Holland Utara
Nederlands: Noord-Holland
Nedersaksies: Noord-Hollaand
Nordfriisk: Prowins Nuurdholun
norsk nynorsk: Noord-Holland
پنجابی: اتلاہالینڈ
português: Holanda do Norte
română: Olanda de Nord
Seeltersk: Noud-Hollound
Simple English: North Holland
slovenčina: Severný Holland
slovenščina: Severna Holandija
Soomaaliga: Waqooyiga Holland
Sranantongo: Noord-Holland
српски / srpski: Северна Холандија
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Sjeverna Holandija
svenska: Noord-Holland
Türkçe: Kuzey Hollanda
Tiếng Việt: Noord-Holland
Volapük: Noord-Holland
West-Vlams: Nôord-Holland
Winaray: Noord-Holland
粵語: 北荷蘭
Zeêuws: Noord-'Olland
中文: 北荷兰省
Lingua Franca Nova: Holland Norde