North Germanic languages

North Germanic
EthnicityNorth Germanic peoples
Northern Europe
Linguistic classificationIndo-European
Proto-languageProto-Norse, later Old Norse
  • East Scandinavian
  • West Scandinavian
ISO 639-5gmq
North Germanic-speaking lands
Continental Scandinavian languages:

Insular Nordic languages:

  Norn (†)

The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages, a sub-family of the Indo-European languages, along with the West Germanic languages and the extinct East Germanic languages. The language group is sometimes referred to as the "Nordic languages", a direct translation of the most common term used among Danish, Faroese, Icelandic, Norwegian and Swedish scholars and laypeople.

In Scandinavia, the term "Scandinavian languages" refers specifically to the generally mutually intelligible languages of the three continental Scandinavian countries, and is thus used in a more narrow sense as a subset of the Nordic languages, leaving aside the insular subset of Faroese and Icelandic. Danish, Norwegian and Swedish are also referred to as Scandinavian or Nordic languages, while Faroese and Icelandic are grouped together as Insular Nordic languages. The term Scandinavian arose in the 18th century as a result of the early linguistic and cultural Scandinavist movement, referring to the people, cultures, and languages of the three Scandinavian countries and stressing their common heritage.

The term "North Germanic languages" is used in comparative linguistics,[2] whereas the term "Scandinavian languages" appears in studies of the modern standard languages and the dialect continuum of Scandinavia.[3][4]

Approximately 20 million people in the Nordic countries speak a Scandinavian language as their native language,[5] including an approximately 5% minority in Finland. Languages belonging to the North Germanic language tree are also commonly spoken on Greenland and, to a lesser extent, by immigrants in North America.

Other Languages
Bân-lâm-gú: Pak German giân-gú
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Паўночнагерманскія мовы
davvisámegiella: Skandinávalaš gielat
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Pet German Ngî-kî
Bahasa Indonesia: Bahasa Jermanik Utara
norsk nynorsk: Nordgermanske språk
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Skandinaviya tillari
Plattdüütsch: Noordgermaansche Spraken
português: Línguas nórdicas
Tiếng Việt: Ngữ chi German Bắc