Normans

Victorian interpretation of the Normans' national dress, 1000–1100

The Normans (Norman: Normaunds; French: Normands) are an ethnic group that arose in Normandy, a northern region of France, from contact between indigenous Franks and Gallo-Romans, and Norse Viking settlers.[1] The settlements followed a series of raids on the French coast from Denmark, Norway, and Iceland, and they gained political legitimacy when the Viking leader Rollo agreed to swear fealty to King Charles III of West Francia.[2] The distinct cultural and ethnic identity of the Normans emerged initially in the first half of the 10th century, and it continued to evolve over the succeeding centuries.[3]

The Norman dynasty had a major political, cultural and military impact on medieval Europe and the Near East.[4][5] The Normans were famed for their martial spirit and eventually for their Catholic piety, becoming exponents of the Catholic orthodoxy of the Romance community into which they assimilated.[2] They adopted the Gallo-Romance language of the Frankish land they settled, their dialect becoming known as Norman, Normaund or Norman French, an important literary language which is still spoken today in parts of Normandy and the nearby Channel Islands. The Duchy of Normandy, which they formed by treaty with the French crown, was a great fief of medieval France, and under Richard I of Normandy was forged into a cohesive and formidable principality in feudal tenure.[6][7]

The Normans are noted both for their culture, such as their unique Romanesque architecture and musical traditions, and for their significant military accomplishments and innovations. Norman adventurers played a role in founding the Kingdom of Sicily under Roger II after briefly conquering southern Italy and Malta from the Saracens and Byzantines, during an expedition on behalf of their duke, William the Conqueror, which also led to the Norman conquest of England at the historic Battle of Hastings in 1066.[8] In the ninth century, the Normans captured Seville in Southern Spain,[9] and Norman and Anglo-Norman forces contributed to the Iberian Reconquista from the early eleventh to the mid-thirteenth centuries.[10]

Norman cultural and military influence spread from these new European centres to the Crusader states of the Near East, where their prince Bohemond I founded the Principality of Antioch in the Levant, to Scotland and Wales in Great Britain, to Ireland, and to the coasts of north Africa and the Canary Islands. The legacy of the Normans persists today through the regional languages and dialects of France, England, Spain, and Sicily, as well as the various cultural, judicial, and political arrangements they introduced in their conquered territories.[5][11]

Etymology

The English name "Normans" comes from the French words Normans/Normanz, plural of Normant,[12] modern French normand, which is itself borrowed from Old Low Franconian Nortmann "Northman"[13] or directly from Old Norse Norðmaðr, Latinized variously as Nortmannus, Normannus, or Nordmannus (recorded in Medieval Latin, 9th century) to mean "Norseman, Viking".[14]


The 11th century Benedictine monk and historian, Goffredo Malaterra, characterised the Normans thus:

Specially marked by cunning, despising their own inheritance in the hope of winning a greater, eager after both gain and dominion, given to imitation of all kinds, holding a certain mean between lavishness and greediness, that is, perhaps uniting, as they certainly did, these two seemingly opposite qualities. Their chief men were specially lavish through their desire of good report. They were, moreover, a race skillful in flattery, given to the study of eloquence, so that the very boys were orators, a race altogether unbridled unless held firmly down by the yoke of justice. They were enduring of toil, hunger, and cold whenever fortune laid it on them, given to hunting and hawking, delighting in the pleasure of horses, and of all the weapons and garb of war.[15]

Other Languages
Alemannisch: Normannen
العربية: نورمان
aragonés: Normandos
asturianu: Normandos
azərbaycanca: Normanlar
تۆرکجه: نورمنلر
Bân-lâm-gú: Norman Lâng
беларуская: Нарманы
български: Нормани
bosanski: Normani
català: Normands
čeština: Normané
Cymraeg: Normaniaid
dansk: Normannere
Deutsch: Normannen
eesti: Normannid
Ελληνικά: Νορμανδοί
español: Normandos
Esperanto: Normandoj
euskara: Normandiar
فارسی: نورمن‌ها
français: Normands
furlan: Normans
Gaeilge: Normannaigh
galego: Normandos
한국어: 노르만인
հայերեն: Նորմաններ
हिन्दी: नॉर्मन
hrvatski: Normani
Bahasa Indonesia: Bangsa Norman
íslenska: Normannar
italiano: Normanni
עברית: נורמנים
ქართული: ნორმანები
қазақша: Нормандар
Кыргызча: Норманндар
Latina: Normanni
latviešu: Normāņi
lietuvių: Normanai
Lingua Franca Nova: Normande
magyar: Normannok
македонски: Нормани
മലയാളം: നോർമൻ (ജനത)
Malti: Normanni
მარგალური: ნორმანეფი
مصرى: نورمان
Bahasa Melayu: Orang Norman
Nederlands: Normandiërs
日本語: ノルマン人
norsk: Normannere
norsk nynorsk: Normannarar
Nouormand: Normaunds
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Normannlar
polski: Normanowie
português: Normandos
română: Normanzi
русиньскый: Нормане
русский: Норманны
sardu: Normannos
Scots: Normans
Seeltersk: Normandier
sicilianu: Nurmanni
slovenčina: Normani (Normandia)
slovenščina: Normani
српски / srpski: Нормани
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Normani
suomi: Normannit
svenska: Normander
татарча/tatarça: Норманнар
Türkçe: Normanlar
українська: Нормани
اردو: نورمین
Tiếng Việt: Người Norman
粵語: 諾曼人
中文: 諾曼人