Norman language

Norman
Normaund
Native to

Previously used:

RegionNormandy and the Channel Islands
Native speakers
Unknown due to conflicting definitions (2017)
Early form
Dialects
Latin (French orthography)
Language codes
ISO 639-3nrf (partial: Guernésiais & Jèrriais)
norm1245  Norman[2]
Linguasphere51-AAA-hc & 51-AAA-hd
Langue normande.png
Areas where the Norman language is strongest include Jersey, Guernsey, the Cotentin and the Pays de Caux.

Norman (Normaund, French: Normand, Guernésiais: Normand, Jèrriais: Nouormand) is a Romance language which can be classified as one of the Oïl languages along with French, Picard and Walloon. The name Norman-French is sometimes used to describe not only the Norman language, but also the administrative languages of Anglo-Norman and Law French used in England. For the most part, the written forms of Norman and modern French are mutually intelligible. This intelligibility was largely caused by Norman language's planned adaptation to French orthography.

Geographical distribution

Norman is spoken in mainland Normandy in France – where it has no official status, but is classed as a regional language. It is taught in a few colleges near Cherbourg-Octeville.

In the Channel Islands, the Norman language has developed separately, but not in isolation, to form:

The British and Irish governments recognize Jèrriais and Guernésiais as regional languages within the framework of the British–Irish Council. Sercquiais is in fact a descendant of the 16th-century Jèrriais used by the original colonists from Jersey who settled the then uninhabited island.

The last first-language speakers of Auregnais, the dialect of Norman spoken on Alderney, died during the 20th century, although some rememberers are still alive. The dialect of Herm also lapsed, at an unknown date.

An isogloss termed the "Joret line" (ligne Joret) separates the northern and southern dialects of the Norman language (the line runs from Granville, Manche to the French-speaking Belgian border in the province of Hainaut and Thiérache). Dialectal differences also distinguish western and eastern dialects.[citation needed]

Three different standardized spellings are used: continental Norman, Jèrriais, and Dgèrnésiais. These represent the different developments and particular literary histories of the varieties of Norman. Norman may therefore be described as a pluricentric language.

The Anglo-Norman dialect of Norman served as a language of administration in England following the Norman conquest of England in 1066. This left a legacy of Law French in the language of English courts (though it was also influenced by Parisian French). In Ireland, Norman remained strongest in the area of south-east Ireland, where the Hiberno-Normans invaded in 1169. Norman remains in (limited) use for some very formal legal purposes in the UK, such as when the monarch gives royal assent to an Act of Parliament using the phrase, "La Reyne (le Roy) le veult" ("The Queen (the King) wills it").

The Norman conquest of southern Italy in the 11th and 12th centuries brought the language to Sicily and the southern part of the Italian Peninsula, where it may have left a few words in the Sicilian language. See: Norman and French influence on Sicilian.

Literature in Norman ranges from early Anglo-Norman literature through the 19th-century Norman literary renaissance to modern writers (see list of Norman-language writers).

As of 2017 the Norman language remains strongest in the less accessible areas of the former Duchy of Normandy: the Channel Islands and the Cotentin Peninsula (Cotentinais) in the west, and the Pays de Caux (Cauchois dialect) in the east. Ease of access from Paris and the popularity of the coastal resorts of central Normandy, such as Deauville, in the 19th century led to a significant loss of distinctive Norman culture in the central low-lying areas of Normandy.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Normandies
አማርኛ: ኖርማንኛ
العربية: لغة نورمندية
aragonés: Idioma normando
asturianu: Normandu
Bân-lâm-gú: Norman-gí
беларуская: Нармандская мова
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Нармандзкая мова
brezhoneg: Normaneg
català: Normand
Чӑвашла: Норман чĕлхи
español: Idioma normando
Esperanto: Normanda lingvo
euskara: Normandiera
français: Normand
Frysk: Normandysk
Gaelg: Normanish
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Norman-ngî
한국어: 노르만어
Bahasa Indonesia: Bahasa Norman
italiano: Lingua normanna
kernowek: Normanek
lietuvių: Normandų kalba
Limburgs: Normandisch
lumbaart: Lengua nurmana
Nederlands: Normandisch
Nedersaksies: Normandies
日本語: ノルマン語
norsk: Normannisk
norsk nynorsk: Normannisk
Nouormand: Normaund
occitan: Normand
پنجابی: نارمن بولی
Picard: Neurmind
Plattdüütsch: Normand
português: Língua normanda
română: Limba normandă
Simple English: Norman language
svenska: Normandiska
Tagalog: Wikang Norman
татарча/tatarça: Норманд теле
Türkçe: Normanca
українська: Нормандська мова
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: نورمان تىلى
粵語: 諾曼文
žemaitėška: Nuormandu kalba
中文: 諾曼語