Nobel Prize in Chemistry

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry
A golden medallion with an embossed image of a bearded man facing left in profile. To the left of the man is the text "ALFR•" then "NOBEL", and on the right, the text (smaller) "NAT•" then "MDCCCXXXIII" above, followed by (smaller) "OB•" then "MDCCCXCVI" below.
Awarded forOutstanding contributions in chemistry
LocationStockholm, Sweden
Presented byRoyal Swedish Academy of Sciences
Reward(s)9 million SEK (2017)[1]
First awarded1901
Currently held byFrances Arnold, George P. Smith and Gregory Winter (2018)
Most awardsFrederick Sanger (2)
Websitenobelprize.org

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry (Swedish: Nobelpriset i kemi) is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of chemistry. It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Alfred Nobel in 1895, awarded for outstanding contributions in chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine. This award is administered by the Nobel Foundation and awarded by Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences on proposal of the Nobel Committee for Chemistry which consists of five members elected by Academy. The award is presented in Stockholm at an annual ceremony on December 10, the anniversary of Nobel's death.

The first Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded in 1901 to Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff, of the Netherlands, "for his discovery of the laws of chemical dynamics and osmotic pressure in solutions." From 1901 to 2018, the award has been bestowed on a total of 180 individuals.[2]

Background

Alfred Nobel stipulated in his last will and testament that his money be used to create a series of prizes for those who confer the "greatest benefit on mankind" in physics, chemistry, peace, physiology or medicine, and literature.[3][4] Though Nobel wrote several wills during his lifetime, the last was written a little over a year before he died, and signed at the Swedish-Norwegian Club in Paris on 27 November 1895.[5][6] Nobel bequeathed 94% of his total assets, 31 million Swedish kronor (US$198 million, Euro€176 million in 2016), to establish and endow the five Nobel Prizes.[7] Due to the level of skepticism surrounding the will, it was not until April 26, 1897 that it was approved by the Storting (Norwegian Parliament).[8][9] The executors of his will were Ragnar Sohlman and Rudolf Lilljequist, who formed the Nobel Foundation to take care of Nobel's fortune and organise the prizes.

The members of the Norwegian Nobel Committee that were to award the Peace Prize were appointed shortly after the will was approved. The prize-awarding organisations followed: the Karolinska Institutet on June 7, the Swedish Academy on June 9, and the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences on June 11.[10][11] The Nobel Foundation then reached an agreement on guidelines for how the Nobel Prize should be awarded. In 1900, the Nobel Foundation's newly created statutes were promulgated by King Oscar II.[9][12][13] According to Nobel's will, The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences were to award the Prize in Chemistry.[13]

Other Languages
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Нобэлеўская прэмія ў галіне хіміі
한국어: 노벨 화학상
Bahasa Indonesia: Nobel Kimia
norsk nynorsk: Nobelprisen i kjemi
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Kimyo boʻyicha Nobel mukofoti
Plattdüütsch: Nobelpries för Chemie
português: Nobel de Química
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Nobelova nagrada za hemiju
Basa Sunda: Hadiah Nobel Kimia
Tiếng Việt: Giải Nobel hóa học