Nile

Nile
Evening, Nile River, Uganda.jpg
The river in Uganda
inside river Nile map
CountriesEgypt, Sudan, South Sudan, Ethiopia, Uganda, Congo, Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda, Burundi, Eritrea
Major citiesJinja, Juba, Khartoum, Cairo
Physical characteristics
Main sourceWhite Nile
Rwanda
2,700 m (8,900 ft)
02°16′56″S 29°19′53″E / 02°16′56″S 29°19′53″E / -2.28222; 29.33139
2nd sourceBlue Nile
Lake Tana, Ethiopia
12°02′09″N 037°15′53″E / 12°02′09″N 037°15′53″E / 12.03583; 37.26472
River mouthMediterranean Sea
Egypt
Sea level
30°10′N 31°09′E / 30°10′N 31°09′E / 30.167; 31.150
Length6,853 km (4,258 mi)
Width
  • Maximum width:
    2.8 km (1.7 mi)
Depth
  • Average depth:
    8–11 m (26–36 ft)
Discharge
  • Average rate:
    2,830 m3/s (100,000 cu ft/s)
Basin features
Basin size3,400,000 km2 (1,300,000 sq mi)

The Nile (Arabic: النيل‎) is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, and is commonly regarded as the longest river in the world,[1] though some sources cite the Amazon River as the longest.[2] The Nile, which is 6,853 km (4,258 miles) long, is an "international" river as its drainage basin covers eleven countries, namely, Tanzania, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, Ethiopia, Eritrea, South Sudan, Republic of the Sudan and Egypt.[3] In particular, the Nile is the primary water source of Egypt and Sudan.[4]

The river Nile has two major tributaries, the White Nile and Blue Nile. The White Nile is considered to be the headwaters and primary stream of the Nile itself. The Blue Nile, however, is the source of most of the water and silt. The White Nile is longer and rises in the Great Lakes region of central Africa, with the most distant source still undetermined but located in either Rwanda or Burundi. It flows north through Tanzania, Lake Victoria, Uganda and South Sudan. The Blue Nile begins at Lake Tana in Ethiopia[5] and flows into Sudan from the southeast. The two rivers meet just north of the Sudanese capital of Khartoum.[6]

The northern section of the river flows north almost entirely through the Sudanese desert to Egypt, then ends in a large delta and flows into the Mediterranean Sea. Egyptian civilization and Sudanese kingdoms have depended on the river since ancient times. Most of the population and cities of Egypt lie along those parts of the Nile valley north of Aswan, and nearly all the cultural and historical sites of Ancient Egypt are found along riverbanks.

Etymology and names

In the ancient Iteru (Hapy), meaning "river". In Coptic, the word ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲱ, pronounced piaro (Sahidic) or phiaro (Bohairic), means "the river" (lit. p(h).iar-o "the.canal-great"), and comes from the same ancient name.[7]

In Egyptian Arabic, the Nile is called en-Nīl while in Standard Arabic it is called an-Nīl. The river is also called in Coptic: ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲱ, P(h)iaro; in Ancient EgyptianḤ'pī and Jtrw; and in Biblical Hebrew: הַיְאוֹר‬, Ha-Ye'or or הַשִׁיחוֹר‬, Ha-Shiḥor.

The English name Nile and the Arabic names en-Nîl and an-Nîl both derive from the Latin Nilus and the Ancient Greek Νεῖλος.[8][9] Beyond that, however, the etymology is disputed.[9][10] Hesiod at his Theogony refers that Nilus (Νεῖλος) was one of the Potamoi (river gods), son of Oceanus and Tethys.[11] Another derivation of Nile might be related to the term Nil (Sanskrit: नील, translit. nila; Egyptian Arabic: نيلة‎),[7] which refers to Indigofera tinctoria, one of the original sources of indigo dye;[12] or Nymphaea caerulea, known as "The Sacred Blue Lily of the Nile", which was found scattered over Tutankhamen’s corpse when it was located in 1922.[13]

Another possible etymology derives it from a Semitic Nahal, meaning "river".[14] The standard English names "White Nile" and "Blue Nile", to refer to the river's source, derive from Arabic names formerly applied only to the Sudanese stretches which meet at Khartoum.[15]

Other Languages
Адыгэбзэ: Нил
адыгабзэ: Нил (псыхъо)
Afrikaans: Nylrivier
Alemannisch: Nil
Ænglisc: Nīl
العربية: نهر النيل
aragonés: Río Nilo
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܢܝܠܘܣ
armãneashti: Arãulu Nil
অসমীয়া: নীল নদী
asturianu: Ríu Nilu
Avañe'ẽ: Nilo
azərbaycanca: Nil
تۆرکجه: نیل چایی
বাংলা: নীলনদ
Bân-lâm-gú: Nî-lô Hô
башҡортса: Нил
беларуская: Ніл
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Ніл
भोजपुरी: नील नदी
Bislama: Nile
български: Нил
Boarisch: Nil
bosanski: Nil
brezhoneg: Nil
буряад: Нил мүрэн
català: Nil
Чӑвашла: Нил
čeština: Nil
Chi-Chewa: Nile
chiShona: Rwizi Nile
corsu: Nilu
Cymraeg: Afon Nîl
dansk: Nilen
davvisámegiella: Niilaeatnu
Deutsch: Nil
ދިވެހިބަސް: ނީލަ ކޯރު
dolnoserbski: Nil (rěka)
eesti: Niilus
Ελληνικά: Νείλος
эрзянь: Нил
español: Nilo
Esperanto: Nilo
estremeñu: Nilu
euskara: Nilo
فارسی: نیل
Fiji Hindi: Nile
føroyskt: Nilá
français: Nil
Frysk: Nyl
Fulfulde: Maayo Niil
Gaeilge: An Níl
Gàidhlig: Nile
galego: Río Nilo
贛語: 尼羅河
ગુજરાતી: નાઈલ નદી
한국어: 나일강
Hausa: Nil
հայերեն: Նեղոս
हिन्दी: नील नदी
hornjoserbsce: Nil
hrvatski: Nil
Ilokano: Nilo
Bahasa Indonesia: Sungai Nil
interlingua: Fluvio Nilo
Ирон: Нил
isiXhosa: I-Nile
íslenska: Níl
italiano: Nilo
עברית: נילוס
Basa Jawa: Kali Nil
ಕನ್ನಡ: ನೈಲ್
ქართული: ნილოსი
қазақша: Ніл
kernowek: Nil
Kinyarwanda: Nili
Kiswahili: Nile
Kongo: Nilo
Kreyòl ayisyen: Nil
kurdî: Nîl
Кыргызча: Нил
Ladino: Nilo
лезги: Нил
لۊری شومالی: گاٛلال نیل
Latina: Nilus
latviešu: Nīla
Lëtzebuergesch: Nil
lietuvių: Nilas
Limburgs: Niel (reveer)
lingála: Nil
Livvinkarjala: Niilu
la .lojban.: anil. zei rirxe
lumbaart: Nil
magyar: Nílus
मैथिली: नाइल नदी
македонски: Нил
മലയാളം: നൈൽ നദി
मराठी: नाईल नदी
მარგალური: ნილოსი
مصرى: النيل
Bahasa Melayu: Sungai Nil
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Nà̤-lò̤ Ò̤
Mirandés: Riu Nilo
монгол: Нил мөрөн
မြန်မာဘာသာ: နိုင်းမြစ်
Nāhuatl: Nilo
Dorerin Naoero: Nile
Nederlands: Nijl
Nedersaksies: Niel
नेपाली: नाइल नदी
नेपाल भाषा: नाइल खुसि
日本語: ナイル川
Napulitano: Nilo
нохчийн: Нил
Nordfriisk: Niil
norsk: Nilen
norsk nynorsk: Nilen
occitan: Nil
олык марий: Нил
Oromoo: Naayil
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Nil
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਨੀਲ ਨਦੀ
پنجابی: نیل
Patois: Nail
Перем Коми: Нил (ю)
Piemontèis: Nil
Plattdüütsch: Nil
polski: Nil
Ποντιακά: Νείλος
português: Rio Nilo
Qaraqalpaqsha: Nil
qırımtatarca: Nil
română: Nil
rumantsch: Nil
Runa Simi: Nilu mayu
русиньскый: Ніл
русский: Нил
саха тыла: Нил
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱱᱤᱞᱮ ᱜᱟᱰᱟ
संस्कृतम्: नील्-नदी
Scots: Nile
Seeltersk: Nil
Sesotho sa Leboa: Nile
shqip: Nili
sicilianu: Nilu
සිංහල: නයිල් ගඟ
Simple English: Nile
slovenčina: Níl
slovenščina: Nil
ślůnski: Ńil
Soomaaliga: Wabiga Niil
کوردی: نیل
српски / srpski: Нил
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Nil
suomi: Niili
svenska: Nilen
Tagalog: Ilog Nilo
தமிழ்: நைல்
Taqbaylit: Nnil
tarandíne: Nile
татарча/tatarça: Нил
తెలుగు: నైలు నది
тоҷикӣ: Нил (дарё)
Türkçe: Nil
Türkmençe: Nil
Thuɔŋjäŋ: Nail
удмурт: Нил
українська: Ніл
vèneto: Nilo
vepsän kel’: Nil
Tiếng Việt: Sông Nin
Volapük: Nil
Võro: Niilus
Winaray: Nilo
吴语: 尼罗河
ייִדיש: נילוס
Yorùbá: Nílò
粵語: 尼羅河
žemaitėška: Nils
中文: 尼罗河
डोटेली: नाइल नदी
Bahasa Hulontalo: Dutula Nil
Kabɩyɛ: Niili Pɔɔ
Lingua Franca Nova: Rio Nilo