Nice

Nice
Prefecture and commune
Port Lympia of Nice
Port Lympia of Nice
Flag of Nice
Flag
Coat of arms of Nice
Coat of arms
Motto(s): Nicæa civitas fidelissima
(Latin: Nice, most faithful city)
Nice is located in France
Nice
Nice
Location within Provence-A.-C.d'A. region
Nice is located in Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
Nice
Nice
Coordinates: 43°42′12″N 7°15′59″E / 43°42′12″N 7°15′59″E / 43.7034; 7.2663
CountryFrance
RegionProvence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
DepartmentAlpes-Maritimes
ArrondissementNice
CantonNice-1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9
IntercommunalityMétropole Nice Côte d'Azur
Government
 • Mayor (2017–21) Christian Estrosi
Area171.92 km2 (27.77 sq mi)
Population (2014)2343,895
 • Rank5th in France
 • Density4,800/km2 (12,000/sq mi)
 • Urban (2013)1,004,826
Time zoneCET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST)CEST (UTC+2)
INSEE/Postal code06088 /
Websitewww.nice.fr

1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.

2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.

Nice (s/, French pronunciation: ​[nis]; Niçard Occitan: Niça, classical norm, or Nissa, nonstandard, pronounced [ˈnisa]; Italian: Nizza [ˈnittsa]; Greek: Νίκαια; Latin: Nicaea) is the fifth most populous city in France and the capital of the Alpes-Maritimes département. The metropolitan area of Nice extends beyond the administrative city limits, with a population of about 1 million[1][2] on an area of 721 km2 (278 sq mi).[1] Located in the French Riviera, on the south east coast of France on the Mediterranean Sea, at the foot of the Alps, Nice is the second-largest French city on the Mediterranean coast and the second-largest city in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region after Marseille. Nice is about 13 kilometres (8 miles) from the principality of Monaco, and its airport is a gateway to the principality as well.

The city is nicknamed Nice la Belle (Nissa La Bella in Niçard), which means Nice the Beautiful, which is also the title of the unofficial anthem of Nice, written by Menica Rondelly in 1912.

The area of today's Nice contains Terra Amata, an archaeological site which displays evidence of a very early use of fire. Around 350 BC, Greeks of Marseille founded a permanent settlement and called it Nikaia, after Nike, the goddess of victory.[3] Through the ages, the town has changed hands many times. Its strategic location and port significantly contributed to its maritime strength. For centuries it was a dominion of Savoy, and was then part of France between 1792 and 1815, when it was returned to Piedmont-Sardinia until its re-annexation by France in 1860.

The natural beauty of the Nice area and its mild Mediterranean climate came to the attention of the English upper classes in the second half of the 18th century, when an increasing number of aristocratic families took to spending their winters there. The city's main seaside promenade, the Promenade des Anglais ("Walkway of the English") owes its name to visitors to the resort.[4]The clear air and soft light have particularly appealed to notable painters, such as Marc Chagall, Henri Matisse, Niki de Saint Phalle and Arman. Their work is commemorated in many of the city's museums, including Musée Marc Chagall, Musée Matisse and Musée des Beaux-Arts.[5]Nice has the second largest hotel capacity in the country[6] and it is one of its most visited cities, receiving 4 million tourists every year.[7] It also has the third busiest airport in France, after the two main Parisian ones.[8] It is the historical capital city of the County of Nice (Comté de Nice).

History

Foundation

Nice in the time of the Roman Empire.

The first known hominid settlements in the Nice area date back about 400,000 years;[9] the Terra Amata archeological site shows one of the earliest uses of fire, construction of houses, and flint findings dated to around 230,000 years ago.[10] Nice (Nicaea) was probably founded around 350 BC by the Greeks of Massalia (Marseille), and was given the name of Nikaia (Νίκαια) in honour of a victory over the neighbouring Ligurians; Nike (Νίκη) was the Greek goddess of victory. The city soon became one of the busiest trading ports on the Ligurian coast; but it had an important rival in the Roman town of Cemenelum[citation needed], which continued to exist as a separate city until the time of the Lombard invasions. The ruins of Cemenelum are in Cimiez, now a district of Nice.

Early development

The Tower of St François

In the 7th century, Nice joined the Genoese League formed by the towns of Liguria. In 729 the city repulsed the Saracens; but in 859 and again in 880 the Saracens pillaged and burned it, and for most of the 10th century remained masters of the surrounding country.

During the Middle Ages, Nice participated in the wars and history of Italy. As an ally of Pisa it was the enemy of Genoa, and both the King of France and the Holy Roman Emperor endeavoured to subjugate it; but in spite of this it maintained its municipal liberties. During the 13th and 14th centuries the city fell more than once into the hands of the Counts of Provence, but it regained its independence even though related to Genoa.

Duchy of Savoy (red) and other independent Italian states in 1494.

Defences

The medieval city walls surrounded the Old Town. The landward side was protected by the River Paillon, which was later covered over and is now the tram route towards the Acropolis.

The east side of the town was protected by fortifications on Castle Hill. Another river flowed into the port on the east side of Castle Hill. Engravings suggest that the port area was also defended by walls.

Under Monoprix in Place de Garibaldi are excavated remains of a well-defended city gate on the main road from Turin.

Nice and Savoy

Nice in 1624
Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia (blue) and other independent Italian states in 1843.

In 1388 the commune placed itself under the protection of the Counts of Savoy. Nice participated – directly or indirectly – in the history of Savoy until 1860.[citation needed]

The maritime strength of Nice now rapidly increased until it was able to cope with the Barbary pirates; the fortifications were largely extended and the roads to the city improved. In 1561 Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy abolished the use of Latin as an administrative language and established the Italian language as the official language of government affairs in Nice.

During the struggle between Francis I and Charles V great damage was caused by the passage of the armies invading Provence; pestilence and famine raged in the city for several years. In 1538, in the nearby town of Villeneuve-Loubet, through the mediation of Pope Paul III, the two monarchs concluded a ten years' truce.[11]

In 1543, Nice was attacked by the united Franco-Ottoman forces of Francis I and Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha, in the Siege of Nice; though the inhabitants repulsed the assault which followed the terrible bombardment, they were ultimately compelled to surrender, and Barbarossa was allowed to pillage the city and to carry off 2,500 captives. Pestilence appeared again in 1550 and 1580.[citation needed]

In 1600, Nice was briefly taken by the Duke of Guise. By opening the ports of the county to all nations, and proclaiming full freedom of trade (1626), the commerce of the city was given great stimulus, the noble families taking part in its mercantile enterprises.[citation needed]

Captured by Nicolas Catinat in 1691, Nice was restored to Savoy in 1696; but it was again besieged by the French in 1705, and in the following year its citadel and ramparts were demolished.[citation needed]

The Treaty of Utrecht (1713) once more gave the city back to the Duke of Savoy, who was on that same occasion recognised as King of Sicily. In the peaceful years which followed, the "new town" was built. From 1744 until the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748) the French and Spaniards were again in possession. In 1775 the king, who in 1718 had swapped his sovereignty of Sicily for the Kingdom of Sardinia, destroyed all that remained of the ancient liberties of the commune. Conquered in 1792 by the armies of the First French Republic, the County of Nice continued to be part of France until 1814; but after that date it reverted to the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia.

French Nice

After the Treaty of Turin was signed in 1860 between the Sardinian king and Napoleon III, the County was again and definitively ceded to France as a territorial reward for French assistance in the Second Italian War of Independence against Austria, which saw Lombardy united with Piedmont-Sardinia. The cession was ratified by a regional referendum: over 25,000 electors out of a total of 30,700 were in favour of the attachment to France. Savoy was also transferred to the French crown by similar means. Giuseppe Garibaldi, born in Nice, opposed the cession to France, arguing that the ballot was rigged by the French. Many Italians from Nizza then moved to the Ligurian towns of Ventimiglia, Bordighera and Ospedaletti,[12] giving rise to a local branch of the movement of the Italian irredentists which considered the re-acquisition of Nice to be one of their nationalist goals.

In 1900, the Tramway de Nice electrified its horse-drawn streetcars and spread its network to the entire département from Menton to Cagnes-sur-Mer. By the 1930s more bus connections were added in the area.[citation needed]

In the 1930s, Nice hosted international car racing in the Formula Libre (predecessor to Formula One) on the so-called Circuit Nice. The circuit started along the waterfront just south of the Jardin Albert I, then headed westward along the Promenade des Anglais followed by a hairpin turn at the Hotel Negresco to come back eastward and around the Jardin Albert I before heading again east along the beach on the Quai des Etats-Unis.[citation needed]

As war broke out in September 1939, Nice became a city of refuge for many displaced foreigners, notably Jews fleeing the Nazi progression into Eastern Europe. From Nice many sought further shelter in the French colonies, Morocco and North and South America. After July 1940 and the establishment of the Vichy Regime, antisemitic aggressions accelerated the exodus, starting in July 1941 and continuing through 1942. On 26 August 1942, 655 Jews of foreign origin were rounded up by the Laval government and interned in the Auvare barracks. Of these, 560 were deported to Drancy internment camp on 31 August 1942. Due to the activity of the Jewish banker Angelo Donati and of the Capuchin friar Père Marie-Benoît the local authorities hindered the application of anti-Jewish Vichy laws.[13]

The first résistants to the new regime were a group of High School seniors of the Lycée de Nice, now Lycée Masséna, in September 1940, later arrested and executed in 1944 near Castellane. The first public demonstrations occurred on 14 July 1942 when several hundred protesters took to the streets along the Avenue de la Victoire and in the Place Masséna. In November 1942 German troops moved into most of unoccupied France, but Italian troops moved into a smaller zone including Nice. A certain ambivalence remained among the population, many of whom were recent immigrants of Italian ancestry. However, the resistance gained momentum after the Italian surrender in 1943 when the German army occupied the former Italian zone. Reprisals intensified between December 1943 and July 1944, when many partisans were tortured and executed by the local Gestapo and the French Milice. Nice was also heavily bombarded by American aircraft in preparation for the Allied landing in Provence (1000 dead or wounded and more than 5600 people homeless) and famine ensued during summer 1944. American paratroopers entered the city on 30 August 1944 and Nice was finally liberated. The consequences of the war were heavy: the population decreased by 15%[citation needed] and economic life was totally disrupted.

The waterfall on the Colline du Château (Castle Hill)

In the second half of the 20th century, Nice enjoyed an economic boom primarily driven by tourism and construction. Two men dominated this period: Jean Médecin, mayor for 33 years from 1928 to 1943 and from 1947 to 1965, and his son Jacques, mayor for 24 years from 1966 to 1990. Under their leadership, there was extensive urban renewal, including many new constructions. These included the convention centre, theatres, new thoroughfares and expressways. The arrival of the Pieds-Noirs, refugees from Algeria after 1962 independence, also gave the city a boost and somewhat changed the make-up of its population and traditional views.[citation needed] By the late 1980s, rumors of political corruption in the city government surfaced; and eventually formal accusations against Jacques Médecin forced him to flee France in 1990. Later arrested in Uruguay in 1993, he was extradited back to France in 1994, convicted of several counts of corruption and associated crimes and sentenced to imprisonment.

On 16 October 1979, a landslide and an undersea slide caused two tsunamis that hit the western coast of Nice; these events killed between 8 and 23 people.

In February 2001, European leaders met in Nice to negotiate and sign what is now the Treaty of Nice, amending the institutions of the European Union.[citation needed]

In 2003, local Chief Prosecutor Éric de Montgolfier alleged that some judicial cases involving local personalities had been suspiciously derailed by the local judiciary, which he suspected of having unhealthy contacts through Masonic lodges with the defendants. A controversial official report stated later that Montgolfier had made unwarranted accusations.[citation needed]

On 14 July 2016, a truck was deliberately driven into a crowd of people by Mohamed Lahouaiej-Bouhlel on the Promenade des Anglais. The crowd was watching a fireworks display in celebration of Bastille Day.[14] Eighty-seven people were killed, including the perpetrator, who was shot dead by police.[15][16] Another 202 were injured, with 52 in critical care and 25 in intensive care, according to the Paris prosecutor.[17]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Nice
Akan: Nice
Alemannisch: Nizza
አማርኛ: ኒስ
العربية: نيس
aragonés: Niza
asturianu: Niza
azərbaycanca: Nitsa
تۆرکجه: نیس
bamanankan: Nice
বাংলা: নিস
Bân-lâm-gú: Nice
беларуская: Ніца
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Ніцца
български: Ница
Boarisch: Nizza
brezhoneg: Nisa
català: Niça
Чӑвашла: Ницца
Cebuano: Nice
čeština: Nice
Cymraeg: Nice
dansk: Nice
davvisámegiella: Nice
Deutsch: Nizza
eesti: Nice
Ελληνικά: Νίκαια (Γαλλία)
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Nisa
español: Niza
Esperanto: Nico
estremeñu: Niça
euskara: Niza
فارسی: نیس
français: Nice
Frysk: Nice
Gaeilge: Nice
Gàidhlig: Nice
galego: Niza
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Nice
Հայերեն: Նիս
हिन्दी: नीस
hrvatski: Nica
Ido: Nice
Bahasa Indonesia: Nice
Interlingue: Nice
Ирон: Ниццæ
íslenska: Nice
italiano: Nizza
עברית: ניס
Basa Jawa: Nice
kalaallisut: Nice
ქართული: ნიცა
қазақша: Ницца
Kiswahili: Nice
коми: Ницца
Kongo: Nice
Кыргызча: Ницца
Ladino: Nisa
latviešu: Nica
Lëtzebuergesch: Nice
lietuvių: Nica
Ligure: Nissa
Limburgs: Nice
lingála: Nice
lumbaart: Nìsa
magyar: Nizza
македонски: Ница
मराठी: नीस
მარგალური: ნიცა
مازِرونی: نیس
Bahasa Melayu: Nice
монгол: Ницца
Nederlands: Nice
日本語: ニース
Napulitano: Nizza
нохчийн: Ницца
norsk: Nice
norsk nynorsk: Nice
Nouormand: Nice
occitan: Niça
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਨੀਸ
پنجابی: نیس
Piemontèis: Nissa Marìtima
polski: Nicea
Ποντιακά: Νις (Γαλλία)
português: Nice
română: Nisa
Runa Simi: Nice
русский: Ницца
sardu: Nitza
Scots: Nice
Seeltersk: Nice
shqip: Nice
sicilianu: Nizza (Francia)
Simple English: Nice
slovenčina: Nice
slovenščina: Nica
ślůnski: Nice
српски / srpski: Ница
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Nice
suomi: Nizza
svenska: Nice
Tagalog: Nice
தமிழ்: நீஸ்
Taqbaylit: Nice
татарча/tatarça: Ницца
తెలుగు: నీస్
ไทย: นิส
Türkçe: Nice
Twi: Nice
ᨅᨔ ᨕᨘᨁᨗ: Nice
українська: Ніцца
اردو: نیس
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: Nis
vèneto: Niza
vepsän kel’: Nicc
Tiếng Việt: Nice
Volapük: Nice
Winaray: Nice
吴语: 尼斯
ייִדיש: ניס
粵語: 尼斯
Zeêuws: Nice
中文: 尼斯