Nguyễn dynasty

Kingdom of Vietnam (1802-1839)
Việt Nam quốc (越南國)

Empire of Đại Nam (1839-1945)
Đại Nam quốc (大南國)
1802–1945
Flag of Nguyễn Dynasty
First flag of the Nguyen Dynasty.svg
Anthem: "Đăng dàn cung"
Việt Nam at its greatest territorial extent in 1829 (under Emperor Minh Mạng), superimposed on the modern political map
Việt Nam at its greatest territorial extent in 1829 (under Emperor Minh Mạng), superimposed on the modern political map
StatusEmpire
(1802–1883)
Chinese tributary state (1802–1839)
French Protectorate (1883–1945)
CapitalHuế
Common languagesVietnamese
Religion
Neo-Confucianism, Buddhism, Catholicism
GovernmentAbsolute monarchy
Emperor 
• 1802–1820 (first)
Gia Long
• 1926–1945 (last)
Bảo Đại
History 
• Defeat of the Tây Sơn
1802
• Coronation of Gia Long
1 June 1802
1 September 1858
5 June 1862
25 August 1883
6 June 1884
• Part of French Indochina
17 October 1887
22 September 1940
11 March 1945
30 August 1945
Population
• 1830
7,600,000
• 1860
10,000,000
CurrencyVăn (Sapèque), Tiền, and Lạng
Piastre (from 1885)
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Tây Sơn dynasty
Cochinchina
Annam
Tonkin
Today part ofVietnam
Laos
Cambodia

The Nguyễn dynasty or House of Nguyễn (Vietnamese: Nhà Nguyễn, 家阮; Hán-Nôm: , Nguyễn triều) was the last imperial family of Vietnam.[1] Their ancestral line can be traced back to the beginning of the Common Era. However, only by the mid-sixteenth century the most ambitious family branch, the Nguyễn Lords had risen to conquer, control and establish feudal rule over large territory.[2]

The dynastic rule began with Gia Long ascending the throne in 1802, after ending the previous Tây Sơn dynasty. During its existence, the Empire was gradually absorbed by France over the course of several decades. This began with the Cochinchina Campaign in 1858 which led to the occupation of the southern area of Vietnam. A series of unequal treaties followed; the occupied territory became a French colony in the 1862 Treaty of Saigon and the 1863 Treaty of Huế gave France access to Vietnamese ports and increased control of its foreign affairs. Finally, the 1883 and 1884 Treaties of Huế established a protectorate over the remaining Vietnamese territory, dividing it into the Protectorates of Annam and Tonkin under only nominal Nguyen dynasty rule. They were in 1887 merged with Cochinchina and Cambodia to form French Indochina.[3]

The Nguyễn dynasty remained the formal Emperors of Annam and Tonkin within Indochina until World War II. Japan had occupied Indochina with French collaboration in 1940, but as the war seemed increasingly lost, overthrew the French administration in March 1945 and proclaimed independence for its constituent countries. The Empire of Vietnam under Emperor Bảo Đại was a nominally independent Japanese puppet state during the last months of the war. It ended with Bảo Đại's abdication following the surrender of Japan and communist revolution by the anti-colonial Việt Minh in August 1945. This ended the 143 year rule of the Nguyễn dynasty.

Etymology

Although the nation was given the name Việt Nam (越南) by imperial Chinese decree during Gia Long's reign, it was known as Đại Việt Nam (大越南) by nations other than Qing China. In 1839, under the rule of Emperor Minh Mạng's, Đại Việt Nam was shortened to Đại Nam (大南, which means "Great South");[4] the abbreviation Đại Việt (大越, which means "Great Viet") was forbidden, since it was the name used by several previous dynasties as well.

Other Languages
العربية: أسرة نجوين
Bân-lâm-gú: Nguyễn Tiâu
한국어: 응우옌 왕조
Bahasa Indonesia: Dinasti Nguyen
ქართული: ნგუენები
Bahasa Melayu: Dinasti Nguyễn
Nederlands: Nguyen-dynastie
日本語: 阮朝
português: Dinastia Nguyễn
українська: Династія Нгуєн
Tiếng Việt: Nhà Nguyễn
吴语: 阮朝
粵語: 阮朝
中文: 阮朝