Newark, New Jersey

Newark, New Jersey
City of Newark
Skyline of Newark in 2012
Skyline of Newark in 2012
Flag of Newark, New Jersey
Flag
Official seal of Newark, New Jersey
Seal
Nickname(s): 
"The Brick City", "The Gateway City"
Location within Essex County
Location within Essex County
Newark is located in New Jersey
Newark
Newark
Location within New Jersey
Newark is located in the US
Newark
Newark
Location within the United States
Coordinates: 40°43′N 74°10′W / 40°43′N 74°10′W / 40.72; -74.17
The Krueger-Scott Mansion, owned by African-American beauty entrepreneur Louise Scott, Newark's first female millionaire

Newark (k/,[24] locally k/)[25] is the most populous city in the U.S. state of New Jersey and the seat of Essex County.[26] As one of the nation's major air, shipping, and rail hubs, the city had a population of 285,154 in 2017,[14] making it the nation's 70th-most populous municipality,[11] after being ranked 63rd in the nation in 2000.[12]

Settled in 1666 by Puritans from New Haven Colony, Newark is one of the oldest cities in the United States. Its location at the mouth of the Passaic River (where it flows into Newark Bay) has made the city's waterfront an integral part of the Port of New York and New Jersey. Today, Port Newark–Elizabeth is the primary container shipping terminal of the busiest seaport on the American East Coast. In addition, Newark Liberty International Airport was the first municipal commercial airport in the United States, and today is one of its busiest.[27][28][29]

Several leading companies have their headquarters in Newark, including Prudential, PSEG, Panasonic Corporation of North America, Audible.com, IDT Corporation, and Manischewitz. A number of important higher education institutions are also in the city, including the Newark campus of Rutgers University (which includes law and medical schools and the Rutgers Institute of Jazz Studies); the New Jersey Institute of Technology; and Seton Hall University's law school. The U.S. District Court for the District of New Jersey sits in the city as well. Local cultural venues include the New Jersey Performing Arts Center, Newark Symphony Hall, the Prudential Center and the Newark Museum.

Newark is divided into five political wards (the East, West, South, North and Central wards) and contains neighborhoods ranging in character from bustling urban districts to quiet suburban enclaves. Newark's Branch Brook Park is the oldest county park in the United States and is home to the nation's largest collection of cherry blossom trees, numbering over 5,000.[30][31][32][33]

History

1910-era map of ethnic enclaves in Newark, New Jersey

Newark was settled in 1666 by Connecticut Puritans led by Robert Treat from the New Haven Colony. It was conceived as a theocratic assembly of the faithful, though this did not last for long as new settlers came with different ideas.[34] On October 31, 1693, it was organized as a New Jersey township based on the Newark Tract, which was first purchased on July 11, 1667. Newark was granted a Royal charter on April 27, 1713. It was incorporated on February 21, 1798 by the New Jersey Legislature's Township Act of 1798, as one of New Jersey's initial group of 104 townships. During its time as a township, portions were taken to form Springfield Township (April 14, 1794), Caldwell Township (February 16, 1798; now known as Fairfield Township), Orange Township (November 27, 1806), Bloomfield Township (March 23, 1812) and Clinton Township (April 14, 1834, remainder reabsorbed by Newark on March 5, 1902). Newark was reincorporated as a city on April 11, 1836, replacing Newark Township, based on the results of a referendum passed on March 18, 1836. The previously independent Vailsburg borough was annexed by Newark on January 1, 1905. In 1926, South Orange Township changed its name to Maplewood. As a result of this, a portion of Maplewood known as Ivy Hill was re-annexed to Newark's Vailsburg.[35]

1874 bird's-eye view of Newark

The name of the city is thought to derive from Newark-on-Trent, England, because of the influence of the original pastor, Abraham Pierson, who came from Yorkshire but may have ministered in Newark, Nottinghamshire.[36][37][38] But Pierson is also supposed to have said that the community reflecting the new task at hand should be named "New Ark" for "New Ark of the Covenant[39] and some of the colonists saw it as "New-Work", the settlers' new work with God. Whatever the origins, the name was shortened to Newark, although references to the name "New Ark" are found in preserved letters written by historical figures such as David Ogden in his claim for compensation, and James McHenry, as late as 1787.[40]

During the American Revolutionary War, British troops made several raids into the town.[41] The city saw tremendous industrial and population growth during the 19th century and early 20th century, and experienced racial tension and urban decline in the second half of the 20th century, culminating in the 1967 Newark riots.

The city has experienced revitalization since the 1990s.[42] In 2018 the city passed legislation to protect residents from displacement brought about by gentrification.[43]

Other Languages
azərbaycanca: Nyuark
Bân-lâm-gú: Newark (New Jersey)
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Ньюарк (Нью-Джэрзі)
български: Нюарк
čeština: Newark
dansk: Newark
eesti: Newark
հայերեն: Նյուարկ
Bahasa Indonesia: Newark, New Jersey
interlingua: Newark (New Jersey)
italiano: Newark
עברית: ניוארק
ქართული: ნიუარკი
Kreyòl ayisyen: Newark, New Jersey
Latina: Novarcum
latviešu: Ņuarka
मराठी: न्यूअर्क
Bahasa Melayu: Newark, New Jersey
Nordfriisk: Newark
norsk nynorsk: Newark
Piemontèis: Newark (New Jersey)
sardu: Newark
Simple English: Newark, New Jersey
slovenčina: Newark (New Jersey)
српски / srpski: Њуарк (Њу Џерзи)
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Newark, New Jersey
suomi: Newark
தமிழ்: நுவார்க்
татарча/tatarça: Ньюарк
Twi: Newark
Tiếng Việt: Newark, New Jersey
ייִדיש: נוארק
粵語: 紐華克