New World

Sebastian Münster's map of the New World, first published in 1540
History of the New World "Historia antipodum oder newe Welt". Matthäus Merian, 1631.

The New World is one of the names used for the majority of Earth's Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas (including nearby islands such as those of the Caribbean and Bermuda).

The term originated in the early 16th century after Europeans made landfall in what would later be called the Americas in the age of discovery, expanding the geographical horizon of classical geographers, who had thought of the world as consisting of Africa, Europe, and Asia, collectively now referred to as the Old World (a.k.a. Afro-Eurasia).

The phrase gained prominence after the publication of a pamphlet titled Mundus Novus attributed to Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci.[1]

The Americas were also referred to as the "fourth part of the world".[2]

Usage

The terms "Old World" vs. "New World" are meaningful in historical context and for the purpose of distinguishing the world's major ecozones, and to classify plant and animal species that originated therein.

One can speak of the "New World" in a historical context, e.g., when discussing the voyages of Christopher Columbus, the Spanish conquest of Yucatán and other events of the colonial period. For lack of alternatives, the term is also still useful to those discussing issues that concern the Americas and the nearby oceanic islands, such as Bermuda and Clipperton Island, collectively.

The term "New World" is used in a biological context, when one speaks of Old World (Palearctic, Afrotropic) and New World species (Nearctic, Neotropic). Biological taxonomists often attach the "New World" label to groups of species that are found exclusively in the Americas, to distinguish them from their counterparts in the "Old World" (Europe, Africa and Asia), e.g. New World monkeys, New World vultures, New World warblers.

The label is also often used in agriculture. Asia, Africa, and Europe share a common agricultural history stemming from the Neolithic Revolution, and the same domesticated plants and animals spread through these three continents thousands of years ago, making them largely indistinct and useful to classify together as "Old World". Common Old World crops (e.g., barley, lentils, oats, peas, rye, wheat), and domesticated animals (e.g., cattle, chickens, goats, horses, pigs, sheep) did not exist in the Americas until they were introduced by post-Columbian contact in the 1490s (see "Columbian Exchange"). Conversely, many common crops were originally domesticated in the Americas before they spread worldwide after Columbian contact, and are still often referred to as "New World crops"; common beans (phaseolus), maiz, and squash – the "three sisters" – as well as the avocado, tomato, and wide varieties of capsicum (bell pepper, chili pepper, etc.), and the turkey were originally domesticated by pre-Columbian peoples in Mesoamerica, while agriculturalists in the Andean region of South America brought forth the cassava, peanut, potato, quinoa and domesticated animals like the alpaca, guinea pig and llama. Other famous New World crops include the cashew, cocoa, rubber, sunflower, tobacco, and vanilla, and fruits like the guava, papaya and pineapple. There are rare instances of overlap, e.g., the calabash (bottle-gourd), cotton, and yam, and the dog, are believed to have been domesticated separately in both the Old and New World, their early forms possibly brought along by Paleo-Indians from Asia during the last glacial period.

In wine terminology, "New World" has a different definition. "New World wines" include not only North American and South American wines, but also those from South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, and all other locations outside the traditional wine-growing regions of Europe, North Africa and the Near East.[3]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Nuwe Wêreld
Ænglisc: Nīwe Woruld
asturianu: Nuevu Mundu
azərbaycanca: Yeni dünya
Bân-lâm-gú: Sin Sè-kài
беларуская: Новы Свет
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Новы Сьвет
български: Нов свят
bosanski: Novi svijet
brezhoneg: Bed Nevez
català: Nou Món
čeština: Nový svět
dansk: Nye Verden
Deutsch: Neue Welt
Ελληνικά: Νέος Κόσμος
español: Nuevo Mundo
Esperanto: Nova Mondo
euskara: Mundu Berria
فارسی: بر جدید
français: Nouveau Monde
galego: Novo Mundo
한국어: 신대륙
հայերեն: Նոր աշխարհ
हिन्दी: नवजगत
hrvatski: Novi svijet
Ilokano: Baro a Lubong
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: নোভো মুনডো
Bahasa Indonesia: Dunia Baru
interlingua: Nove Mundo
íslenska: Nýi heimurinn
italiano: Nuovo Mondo
Basa Jawa: Jagat Anyar
қазақша: Жаңа Дүние
Ladino: Muevo Mundo
Latina: Mundus novus
latviešu: Jaunā pasaule
Lëtzebuergesch: Nei Welt
Limburgs: Nuie Wereld
magyar: Újvilág
македонски: Нов Свет
മലയാളം: പുതുലോകം
मराठी: नवे जग
Bahasa Melayu: Dunia Baru
Nederlands: Nieuwe Wereld
日本語: 新世界
нохчийн: Керла Дуьне
norsk nynorsk: Den nye verda
português: Novo Mundo
Ripoarisch: Neue Welt
română: Lumea Nouă
русский: Новый Свет
Scots: New Warld
Simple English: New World
slovenščina: Novi svet
српски / srpski: Нови свет
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Novi svijet
svenska: Nya världen
Tagalog: Bagong Mundo
Türkçe: Yeni Dünya
українська: Новий світ
Tiếng Việt: Tân Thế giới
吴语: 新大陆
粵語: 新大陸
Zazaki: Cihano Newey
中文: 新大陸