Nestorius

Mar Nestorius
Nestorius Hooghe 1688.png
Nestorius as envisioned by the 17th century Dutch printmaker Romeyn de Hooghe, in the book History of the church and heretics
Archbishop of Constantinople
Bornc. 386
Germanicia, Province of Syria, Roman Empire (now Kahramanmaraş, Turkey)
Diedc. 450 (aged 63 or 64)
Great Oasis of Hibis (al-Khargah), Egypt
Venerated inAssyrian Church of the East, Syro-Malabar Church, Ancient Church of the East
FeastOctober 25
ControversyChristology, Theotokos
Servant of God
Nestorius
Bornc. 386
Germanicia, Province of Syria, Roman Empire (now Kahramanmaraş, Turkey)
Diedc. 450
Great Oasis of Hibis (al-Khargah), Egypt
OccupationMonk, Archbishop of Constantinople
Known forChristological Controversy, Nestorian Schism
TitleServant of God

Nestorius (s/; in Greek: Νεστόριος; c. 386 – 450[1]) was Archbishop of Constantinople (now Istanbul) from 10 April 428 to August 431, when Emperor Theodosius II confirmed his condemnation by the Council of Ephesus on 22 June.

His teachings included a rejection of the long-used title of Theotokos, "Mother of God", for Mary, mother of Jesus, and they were considered by many to imply that he did not believe that Christ was truly God. That brought him into conflict with other prominent churchmen of the time, most notably Cyril of Alexandria, whom he accused of heresy.

Nestorius sought to defend himself at the First Council of Ephesus in 431 but instead found himself formally condemned for heresy by a majority of the bishops and was subsequently removed from his see. On his own request, he retired to his former monastery, in or near Antioch. In 435, Theodosius II sent him into exile in Upper Egypt, where he lived on until 450, strenuously defending his orthodoxy. His last major defender within the Roman Empire, Theodoret of Cyrrhus, finally agreed to anathematize him in 451 during the Council of Chalcedon.

From then on, he had no defenders within the empire, but the Church of the East never accepted his condemnation. That led later to western Christians giving the name Nestorian Church to the Church of the East where his teachings were deemed Orthodox and in line with its own teachings. Nestorius is revered as among three "Greek Teachers" of the Church (in addition to Diodorus of Tarsus and Theodore of Mopsuestia). Parts of the Church of the East's Eucharistic Service, which is known to be among the oldest in the world, is contributed to with prayers attributed to Nestorius himself.

The Second Council of Constantinople of AD 553 confirmed the validity of the condemnation of Nestorius, refuting the letter of Ibas of Edessa that affirms that Nestorius was condemned without due inquiry.[2]

The discovery, translation and publication of his Bazaar of Heracleides at the beginning of the 20th century have led to a reassessment of his theology in western scholarship. It is now generally agreed that his ideas were not far from those that eventually emerged as orthodox, but the orthodoxy of his formulation of the doctrine of Christ is still controversial.

Life

Sources place the birth of Nestorius in either 381 or 386 in the city of Germanicia in the Province of Syria, Roman Empire (now Kahramanmaraş in Turkey).[3]

He received his clerical training as a pupil of Theodore of Mopsuestia in Antioch. He was living as a priest and monk in the monastery of Euprepius near the walls, and he gained a reputation for his sermons that led to his enthronement by Theodosius II, as Patriarch of Constantinople, following the 428 death of Sisinnius I.

Other Languages
العربية: نسطور
asturianu: Nestoriu
azərbaycanca: Nestor
беларуская: Несторый
български: Несторий
català: Nestori
čeština: Nestorios
dansk: Nestorius
Deutsch: Nestorius
eesti: Nestorius
Ελληνικά: Νεστόριος
español: Nestorio
Esperanto: Nestorio
euskara: Nestorio
فارسی: نستوریوس
français: Nestorius
galego: Nestorio
hrvatski: Nestorije
Bahasa Indonesia: Nestorius
íslenska: Nestoríos
italiano: Nestorio
қазақша: Несторий
Kiswahili: Nestori
Latina: Nestorius
latviešu: Nestorijs
magyar: Nesztoriosz
Malagasy: Nestorius
Bahasa Melayu: Nestorius
occitan: Nestòri
polski: Nestoriusz
português: Nestório
română: Nestorie
русский: Несторий
Scots: Nestorius
Simple English: Nestorius
slovenčina: Nestorius
slovenščina: Nestor
српски / srpski: Несторије
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Nestorije
suomi: Nestorios
svenska: Nestorius
Tagalog: Nestorio
Türkçe: Nestorius
українська: Несторій
中文: 聶斯脫里