It was not known who Neferirkare's parents were in the past. Some Egyptologists viewed him as a son of
 This is now known to be incorrect: reliefs from Sahure's causeway show that his father was Sahure and his mother was probably Queen Meretnebty.
Scenes discovered in
Sahure's funerary temple, the causeway region, indicate, however, that Neferirkare may have been the son of Sahure and Queen
Meretnebty. K. Sethe thought from broken records that the queen's name was Neferhanebty. This information is now known (see El Awady references above) to be incorrect.
 One theory holds that Neferirkare may have been known as Prince Ranefer when he was young, and had a (twin?) brother named Netjerirenre, who may have taken the throne under the name of
Neferirkare married Queen
Khentkaus II and had 2 sons who both became pharaoh: Ranefer—under the name