Neapolitan language

Neapolitan
Napulitano
Native toItaly
RegionAbruzzo, Apulia, Basilicata, Calabria, Campania, Lazio, Marche, Molise
Native speakers
5.7 million (2002)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-2nap
ISO 639-3nap
Glottologneap1235  Neapolitan[2]
sout3126  South Lucanian = Vd Lausberg[3]
Neapolitan language.jpg
Neapolitan dialects

Neapolitan (autonym: (’o n)napulitano [(o n)napuliˈtɑːnə]; Italian: napoletano) is a Romance language of the Italo-Dalmatian group spoken across much of southern Italy, except for southern Calabria and Sicily.[4][5][6] It is not named specifically after the city of Naples, but rather the homonymous Kingdom that once covered most of the area, and of which the city was the capital. On October 14, 2008, a law by the Region of Campania stated that Neapolitan was to be protected.[7] While the term "Neapolitan language" is used in this article to refer to the language group of related dialects found in southern continental Italy, it may also refer more specifically to the dialect of the Neapolitan language spoken in the Naples area or in Campania.

Neapolitan has had a significant influence on the intonation of Rioplatense Spanish, of the Buenos Aires region of Argentina, and the whole of Uruguay.[8]

Distribution

The Neapolitan dialects are distributed throughout most of continental southern Italy, historically united during the Kingdom of Naples and the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, specifically southern Lazio (Gaeta and Sora districts), southern Marche, Abruzzo, Molise, Basilicata, Campania (Naples), northern and central Apulia, and northernmost Calabria. The dialects are part of a varied dialect continuum, so the varieties in southern Lazio, Marche, Abruzzo, Molise, Apulia, Lucania and Calabria can typically be recognizable as regional groups of dialects. In western Abruzzo and Lazio the dialects give way to Central Italian dialects such as Romanesco. In central Calabria and southern Apulia, the dialects give way to the Sicilian language. Largely due to massive southern Italian migration in the late 19th century and early 20th century, there are also numbers of speakers in Italian diaspora communities in the United States, Canada, Australia, Brazil, Argentina and Venezuela. However, in the United States traditional Neapolitan has had considerable contact with English, and is significantly different from contemporary Neapolitan spoken in Naples. English words are often used in place of Neapolitan words, especially among second-generation speakers.

The following dialects constitute Neapolitan; numbers refer to the map:[9]

  1. Abruzzese and Southern Marchigiano:
    Ia. Southern Marchigiano (Ascoli Piceno).
    Ib. Teramano (province of Teramo; northern province of Pescara: Atri, Abruzzo).
    Ic. Abruzzese Eastern Adriatico (Southern province of Pescara: Penne, Francavilla al Mare; province of Chieti).
    Id. Western Abruzzese (southern part of province of L'Aquila: Marsica, Avezzano, Pescina, Sulmona, Pescasseroli, Roccaraso).
  2. Molisan (Molise)
  3. Apulian (Pugliese):
    IIIa. Dauno (western province of Foggia: Foggia, Bovino).
    IIIb. Garganico (eastern province of Foggia: Gargano).
    IIIc. Barese (province of Bari; western province of Taranto (includes Tarantino dialect); and part of the western province of Brindisi).
  4. Campanian (Campania),
    IVa. Southern Laziale (southern part of province of Frosinone: Sora, Lazio, Cassino; southern part of Province of Latina: Gaeta, Formia).
    IVb. Naples dialect (Neapolitan proper: Naples and the Gulf of Naples).
    IVc. Irpino (province of Avellino).
    IVd. Cilentano (southern part of province of Salerno: Vallo della Lucania).
  5. Lucanian and Northern Calabrian:
    Va. Northwestern Lucanian (northern province of Potenza: Potenza, Melfi).
    Vb. Northeastern Lucanian (province of Matera: Matera).
    Vc. Central Lucanian (province of Potenza: Lagonegro, Pisticci, Laurenzana).
    Vd. Southern Lucanian. The "Lausberg Area"; archaic forms of Lucanian with Sardinian vocalism (described in Lausberg 1939). It lies between Calabria and Basilicata (Chiaromonte, Oriolo).
    Ve. Cosentino (province of Cosenza: Rossano, Diamante, Castrovillari). With transitional dialects to south of Cosenza, where they give way to Sicilian group dialects.

The southernmost regions of Italy—most of Calabria and southern Apulia, as well as Sicily—are home to Sicilian rather than Neapolitan.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Napolitaans
አማርኛ: ናፖሊታንኛ
العربية: لغة نابولية
تۆرکجه: ناپولی دیلی
Bân-lâm-gú: Napoli-gí
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Нэапалітанская мова
Boarisch: Napulitano
brezhoneg: Napolitaneg
català: Napolità
čeština: Neapolština
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Napulitàṅ
Esperanto: Napola lingvo
estremeñu: Luenga napolitana
euskara: Napoliera
français: Napolitain
Gaelg: Naaplish
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Napoli-ngî
한국어: 나폴리어
Bahasa Indonesia: Bahasa Napolitan
עברית: נפוליטנית
kurdî: Napolî
Nederlands: Napolitaans
日本語: ナポリ語
Napulitano: Lengua napulitana
occitan: Napolitan
پنجابی: ناپولیٹان
Papiamentu: Napolitano
Piemontèis: Lenga napoletan-a
português: Língua napolitana
qırımtatarca: Neapolitan tili
svenska: Neapolitanska
Türkçe: Napolice
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: نېئاپول تىلى
Tiếng Việt: Tiếng Napoli
粵語: 拿玻里文
žemaitėška: Neapoulėitiu kalba