Naturalization

Service members are sworn in as citizens aboard the USS Midway in 2009

Naturalization (or naturalisation) is the legal act or process by which a non-citizen in a country may acquire citizenship or nationality of that country.[1] It may be done automatically by a statute, i.e., without any effort on the part of the individual, or it may involve an application or a motion and approval by legal authorities.[2] The rules of naturalization vary from country to country but typically include a promise to obeying and upholding that country's laws,[3] taking and subscribing to the oath of allegiance, and may specify other requirements such as a minimum legal residency and adequate knowledge of the national dominant language or culture. To counter multiple citizenship, most countries require that applicants for naturalization renounce any other citizenship that they currently hold, but whether this renunciation actually causes loss of original citizenship, as seen by the host country and by the original country, will depend on the laws of the countries involved.

The massive increase in population flux due to globalization and the sharp increase in the numbers of refugees following World War I created a large number of stateless persons, people who were not citizens of any state. In some rare cases, laws for mass naturalization were passed. As naturalization laws had been designed to cater for the relatively few people who had voluntarily moved from one country to another (expatriates), many western democracies were not ready to naturalize large numbers of people. This included the massive influx of stateless people which followed massive denationalizations and the expulsion of ethnic minorities from newly created nation states in the first part of the 20th century, but they also included the mostly aristocratic Russians who had escaped the 1917 October Revolution and the war communism period, and then the Spanish refugees. As Hannah Arendt pointed out, internment camps became the "only nation" of such stateless people, since they were often considered "undesirable" and were stuck in an illegal situation, wherein their country had expelled them or deprived them of their nationality, while they had not been naturalized, thus living in a judicial no man's land.

Since World War II, the increase in international migrations created a new category of refugees, most of them economic refugees. For economic, political, humanitarian and pragmatic reasons, many states passed laws allowing a person to acquire their citizenship after birth, such as by marriage to a national – jus matrimonii – or by having ancestors who are nationals of that country, in order to reduce the scope of this category. However, in some countries this system still maintains a large part of the immigrated population in an illegal status, albeit with some massive regularizations, for example, in Spain by José Luis Zapatero's government and in Italy by Berlusconi's government.

Laws by country

 China

The People's Republic of China gives citizenship to persons with one or two parents with Chinese nationality who have not taken residence in other countries. The country also gives citizenship to people born on its territory to stateless people who have settled there. Furthermore, individuals may apply for nationality if they have a near relative with Chinese nationality, if they have settled in China, or if they present another legitimate reason.[4] In practice, only few people gain Chinese citizenship; as of 2010, China had only 1,448 naturalised Chinese in total.[5]

The naturalization process starts with a written application. Applicants must submit three copies, written with a ball-point or fountain pen, to national authorities, and to provincial authorities in the Ministry of Public Security and the Public Security Bureau. Applicants must also submit original copies of a foreign passport, a residence permit, a permanent residence permit, and four two-and-a-half inch long pictures. According to the conditions outlined in the Nationality Law of the People's Republic of China, authorities may also require "any other material that the authority believes are related to the nationality application".[6]

 India

The Indian citizenship and nationality law and the Articles 5 to 11 in Part II of the Constitution of India. Relevant Citizenship (Amendment) Ordinance 2005. The Citizenship (Amendment) Act 2003 received the assent of the President of India on 7 January 2004 and came into force on 3 December 2004. The Citizenship (Amendment) Ordinance 2005 was promulgated by the President of India and came into force on 28 June 2005.

Following these reforms, Indian nationality law largely follows the jus sanguinis (citizenship by right of blood) as opposed to the jus soli (citizenship by right of birth within the territory).

 Italy

The Italian Government grants Italian citizenship for the following reasons.[7]

  • Automatically
    • Jus sanguinis: for birth;
    • If an Italian citizen recognizes, at a time after birth, a minor child;
    • For adoption;
    • To obtain or re-obtain from a parent.
  • Following declaration
    • By descent;
    • Jus soli: by birth or descent in Italy;
  • By marriage or naturalization
    • By marriage: the foreign or stateless spouse of an Italian citizen may acquire Italian citizenship after two years of legal residence in Italy or, if residing abroad, after three years from the date of marriage;
    • By naturalization: the foreigner can apply for Italian citizenship after ten years of legal residence in Italy, reduced to five years for those who have been recognized as stateless or refugee and four years for citizens of countries of the European Community.

 Indonesia

Indonesian nationality is regulated by Law No. 12/2006 (UU No. 12 Tahun 2006). The Indonesian nationality law is based on jus sanguinis and jus soli. The Indonesian nationality law does not recognize dual citizenship except for persons under the age of 18 (single citizenship principle). After reaching 18 years of age individuals are forced to choose one citizenship (limited double citizenship principle).[8]

A foreign citizen can apply to become an Indonesian citizen with the following requirements:

  • Age 18 or older, or married
  • Resided in Indonesia for a minimum of 5 consecutive years or 10 non-consecutive years
  • Physically and mentally healthy
  • Ability to speak Indonesian and acknowledge Pancasila and Undang-Undang Dasar Negara Republik Indonesia Tahun 1945
  • Never convicted of a crime for which the punishment is imprisonment for one year or more
  • If having Indonesian citizenship will not give the person dual citizenship
  • Employed or have fixed income
  • Pay citizenship fee

Any application for citizenship is granted by the President of Indonesia.

 Israel

Israel's Declaration of Independence was made on 14 May 1948, the day before the British Mandate was due to expire as a result of the United Nations Partition Plan.[9] The Israeli parliament created two laws regarding immigration, citizenship and naturalization: the Law of Return and the Israeli nationality law.[10] The Law of Return, enacted on July 15, 1950, gives Jews living anywhere in the world the right to immigrate to Israel. This right to immigrate did not and still does not grant citizenship. In fact, for four years after Israel gained independence, there were no Israeli citizens.[10]

On July 14, 1952, the Israeli parliament enacted the Israeli Nationality Law.[10] The Nationality Law naturalized all citizens of Mandated Palestine, the inhabitants of Israel on July 15, 1952, and those who had legally resided in Israel between May 14, 1948, and July 14, 1952. The law further clarified that naturalization was available to immigrants who had arrived before Israel's creation, immigrants who arrived after statehood was granted, and those who did not come to Israel as immigrants but have since expressed desire to settle in Israel, with restriction. Naturalization applicants must also meet the following requirements: be over 18 years of age, have resided in Israel for three out of the five preceding years, have settled or intend to settle permanently in Israel, have some knowledge of Hebrew, and have renounced prior nationality or demonstrated ability to renounce nationality after becoming a citizen of Israel.[10]

Because of Israel's relatively new and culturally mixed identity, Israel does not grant citizenship to persons born on Israeli soil. Instead, the government chose to enact a jus sanguinis system, with the naturalization restrictions listed above. There is currently no legislation on second-generation immigrants (those born in Israel to immigrant parents). Furthermore, foreign spouses can apply for citizenship through the Minister of the Interior, but have a variety of restrictions and are not guaranteed citizenship.[11]

 Malaysia

Naturalisation in Malaysia is guided by the 1964 Malaysian Constitution. According to the law, those who want to be the country citizen should live in the country for a period of 10–12 years. The would-be-citizens are required to speak the Malay language as well submitting the identity cards of two Malaysians who recommend the applicant for citizenship.[12] As the Government of Malaysia does not recognise dual citizenship, those who seek naturalisation are needed to reside permanently in the country and renouncing their former country citizenship.[13]

The requirements are as follows:[14]

  • The applicant shall appear before the Registrar of Citizenship when submitting the application.
  • The applicant must be aged 21 years and above on the date of the application.
  • The applicant has resided in the federation for a period of not less than 10 years in a period of 12 years, including the 12 months immediately preceding the date of application.
  • The applicant intends to reside permanently in the federation.
  • The applicant is of good character.
  • The applicant has adequate knowledge of the Malay language.
  • The applicant must be sponsored by two referees who are citizens aged 21 years and above and who are not relatives, not hired persons, and not advocates or solicitors to the applicant.
  • Form C must be completed and submitted together with copies of the necessary documents.

The Article 16 of 1957 Malaysian Constitution also stated a similar condition previously.[15]

 Philippines

Commonwealth Act No. 473, the Revised Naturalization Law, approved June 17, 1939, provided that persons having certain specified qualifications may become a citizen of the Philippines by naturalization.[16] Republic Act No. 9139, approved June 8, 2001, provided that aliens under the age of 18 who were born in the Philippines, who have resided in the Philippines and have resided therein since birth, and who possess other specified qualifications may be granted Philippines citizenship by administrative proceeding subject to certain requirements.[17][18]

 Russia

Naturalization in Russia is guided by articles 13 and 14 of the federal law “About Citizenship of Russian Federation” passed on May 31, 2002. Citizenship of Russia can be obtained in general or simplified order. To become a citizen in general order, one must be 18 years of age or older, continuously live in Russia as a permanent resident for at least five years (this term is limited to one year for valued specialists, political asylum seekers and refugees), have legal means of existence, promise to obey the laws and Constitution of Russia and be fluent in the Russian language.

There is also a possibility to naturalize in a simplified order, in which certain requirements will be waived. Eligible for that are persons, at least one parent of whom is a Russian citizen living on Russian territory; persons, who lived on the territories of the former Soviet republics but never obtained citizenships of those nations after they gained independence; persons, who were born on the territory of RSFSR and formerly held Soviet citizenship; persons married to Russian citizens for at least 3 years; persons, who served in Russian Armed Forces under contract for at least 3 years; parents of mentally incapacitated children over 18 who are Russian citizens; participants of the State Program for Assisting Compatriots Residing Abroad; and some other categories.[19]

 South Africa

Chapter 2 of the South African Citizenship Act, enacted on October 6, 1995, defines who is considered a naturalized citizen at the time of the act and also outlines the naturalization process for future immigrants.[20]

Any person who immediately prior to the commencement of the act had been a South African citizen via naturalization, had been deemed to be a South African citizen by registration, or had been a citizen via naturalization of any of the former states now composing South Africa is now considered to be a naturalized citizen of South Africa.[20]

Those wishing to apply for naturalization in the future must apply to the Minister of Home Affairs and must meet a slew of requirements. First, naturalization applicants must be over the age of 18 and must have been a permanent resident of South Africa for one year prior to application and for four out of the eight years prior to application. Applicants must also demonstrate good character and knowledge of the basic responsibilities and privileges of a South African citizen. The ability to communicate in one of the official languages of South Africa is also required. Applicants must show the intention to reside in South Africa after naturalization, and they are required to make a declaration of allegiance.[20]According to Article 3, subsection 3 of the South African constitution, national legislation must provide for the acquisition, loss and restoration of citizenship.

Being a naturalized South African citizen is a privilege, not a right. Even after meeting all the requirements and going through the naturalization process, the minister holds the right to deny citizenship.[21] Foreign spouses of South African citizens can apply for naturalization after two years of marriage, but is subject to potential denial of the minister. The minister can also grant citizenship to minors, if their parent applies for them.[20]

The minister also holds the power to revoke naturalization at any time for specific reasons listed in the Act. Reasons for revoking the naturalization certificate include marrying someone who is a citizen of another country and holding citizenship in another country, or applying for citizenship of another country without prior authorization for retention of citizenship.[21] If a permanent resident is denied naturalization, he or she must wait at least one year before reapplying.[20]

 United Kingdom

There has always been a distinction in the law of England and Wales between the subjects of the monarch and aliens: the monarch's subjects owed the monarch allegiance, and included those born in his or her dominions (natural-born subjects) and those who later gave him or her their allegiance (naturalised subjects). Today, the requirements for naturalisation as a citizen of the United Kingdom depend on whether or not one is the spouse or civil partner of a citizen. An applicant who is a spouse or civil partner of a British citizen must:

  • hold indefinite leave to remain in the UK (or an equivalent such as Right of Abode or Irish citizenship)
  • have lived legally in the UK for three years
  • been outside of the UK no more than 90 days during the one-year period prior to filing the application.
  • show sufficient knowledge of life in the UK, either by passing the Life in the United Kingdom test or by attending combined English language and citizenship classes. Proof of this must be supplied with one's application for naturalisation. Those aged 65 or over may be able to claim exemption.
  • meet specified English, Welsh or Scottish Gaelic language competence standards. Those who pass the Life in the UK test are deemed to meet English language requirements.

For those not married to or in a civil partnership with a British citizen, the requirements are:

  • Five years legal residence in the UK
  • Indefinite leave to remain or "equivalent" for this purpose (see above) must have been held for 12 months
  • the applicant must intend to continue to live in the UK or work overseas for the UK government or a British corporation or association
  • the same "good character" standards apply as for those married to British citizens
  • the same language and knowledge of life in the UK standards apply as for those married to British citizens.

 United States

"The sole authority to naturalize persons as citizens of the United States is conferred upon the Attorney General."[22] In particular cases, however, federal judges may enjoin the Attorney General to confer U.S. nationality upon a person.[1][3] The term "Attorney General" in the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) includes any immigration judge or member of the Board of Immigration Appeals (BIA).

The INA states the following:

No person, except as otherwise provided in this subchapter, shall be naturalized unless such applicant, (1) immediately preceding the date of filing his application for naturalization has resided continuously, after being lawfully admitted for permanent residence, within the United States for at least five years and during the five years immediately preceding the date of filing his application has been physically present therein for periods totaling at least half of that time, and who has resided within the State or within the district of the Service in the United States in which the applicant filed the application for at least three months, (2) has resided continuously within the United States from the date of the application up to the time of admission to citizenship, and (3) during all the periods referred to in this subsection has been and still is a person of good moral character, attached to the principles of the Constitution of the United States, and well disposed to the good order and happiness of the United States.[2]

A man taking the required citizenship oath of allegiance in front of U.S. government officials in New York City (1910).
New citizens at a naturalization ceremony at Kennedy Space Center in Florida (2010).

The Naturalization Act of 1795 set the initial rules on naturalization: "free, White persons" who had been resident for five years or more.[23] An 1862 law allowed honorably discharged Army veterans of any war to petition for naturalization after only one year of residence in the United States. An 1894 law extended the same privilege to honorably discharged five-year veterans of the Navy or Marine Corps. Laws enacted in 1919, 1926, 1940, and 1952 continued preferential treatment provisions for veterans.[24]

Following the Spanish–American War in 1898, Philippine citizens were classified as U.S. nationals, and the 1917 Jones–Shafroth Act granted U.S. citizenship to natives of Puerto Rico. But the 1934 Tydings–McDuffie Act reclassified Filipinos as aliens, and set a quota of 50 immigrants per year, and otherwise applying the Immigration Act of 1924 to them.

The Magnuson Act repealed the Chinese Exclusion Act. During the 1940s, 100 annual immigrants from British India and the Philippines were allowed. The War Brides Act of 1945 permitted soldiers to bring back their foreign wives and established precedent in naturalization through marriage. The Immigration Act of 1965 finally allowed people from all nations to be given equal access to immigration and naturalization.

Illegal immigration became a major issue in the United States at the end of the 20th century. The Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986, while tightening border controls, also provided the opportunity of naturalization for illegal aliens who had been in the country for at least four years. Today, lawful permanent residents of the United States are eligible to apply for U.S. citizenship after five years,[1] unless they continue to be married to a U.S. citizen, in which case they can apply after only three years of permanent residency.[25]

The Child Citizenship Act of 2000 streamlined the naturalization process for children adopted internationally. A child under age 18 who is adopted by at least one U.S. citizen parent, and is in the custody of the citizen parent(s), is now automatically naturalized once admitted to the United States as an immigrant or when legally adopted in the United States, depending on the visa under which the child was admitted to the United States. The Act also provides that the non-citizen minor child of a newly naturalized U.S. citizen, whether by birth or adoption, also automatically receives U.S. citizenship

Other countries

The following list is a brief summary of the duration of legal residence before a national of a foreign state, without any cultural, historical, or marriage ties or connections to the state in question, can request citizenship under that state's naturalization laws.

Country Residence requirement Dual
citizenship
Notes Main article
 Albania 5 years[26] Yes Continuous residence Albanian nationality law
 Andorra 20 years No Continuous residence as a permanent resident, unless the applicant has spent all of their mandatory education in Andorra in which case 10 years continuous as a permanent residence.[27] Andorran nationality law
 Angola 10 years Yes Continuous residence as a permanent resident immediately before the application[28] Angolan nationality law
 Argentina 2 years Yes Continuous residence as a permanent resident immediately before the application[29] Argentine nationality law
 Armenia 3 years Yes Armenian nationality law
 Australia 4 years Yes Legal residency in Australia including 1 year as a permanent resident immediately prior to making an application[30] Australian nationality law
 Austria 10–30 years No, with limited exceptions Exceptions for those born in Austria, citizens of another EEA country, refugees or "exceptionally integrated" in which case it is 6 years.[31] Austrian nationality law
 Azerbaijan 5 years No The applicant must be a fluent speaker of the Azerbaijani language. Azerbaijani nationality law
 Belgium 5 years Yes[32] Continuous residence[33] Belgian nationality law
 Bangladesh 5 years[34] Yes Bangladeshi nationality law
 Barbados 5 years[35][36] Barbadian nationality law
 Belarus 7 years[37] Yes Belarusian nationality law
 Benin 10 years Yes Beninese nationality law
 Belize 5 years Yes Belizean nationality law
 Bhutan 20 years[38] No Bhutanese nationality law
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 8 years Continuous residence as a permanent resident.[39] Bosnia and Herzegovina nationality law
 Brazil 4 years Yes Uninterrupted residence.[40] Brazilian nationality law
 Bulgaria 10 years[41] Bulgarian nationality law
 Burkina Faso 10 years[42] Burkinabé nationality law
 Cambodia 5 years Yes Cambodian nationality law
 Canada 3 years Yes 3 out of 5 years as a permanent resident.[43] Canadian nationality law
 Chile 5 years Yes Continuous residence Chilean nationality law
 Colombia 5 years Yes As a permanent resident Colombian nationality law
 Costa Rica 5 years for Latin Americans and Spanish, 7 years for the rest Yes Requires proven knowledge of Spanish language and Costa Rica's history, having a way of living, no criminal records and two witnesses.[44] Costa Rican nationality law
 Croatia 8 years Partial Continuous residence[45] The applicant must be a fluent speaker of the Croatian language and proficient in the Latin script.[46] Croatian nationality law
 Cuba No Foreigners cannot become naturalized citizens of Cuba. Cuban nationality law
 Cyprus 7 years[47] Yes[47] or by using the "Naturalization of Investors in Cyprus by Exception", a government run cash-for-passport program.[48] Cypriot nationality law
 Czech Republic 5 years Yes 5 years as permanent residence or 10 years residence.[49] Czech nationality law
 Denmark 9 years Yes (since Sept 2015) Continuous residence as a permanent resident immediately before the application[50] Danish nationality law
 El Salvador 1 year for Latin Americans and Spanish, 5 years for the rest Yes Salvadoran nationality law
 Estonia 8 years No (with limited exceptions) 8 years residence out of which 5 years as a permanent residence.[51] Estonian nationality law
 Finland 5 years Yes Continuous residence Finnish nationality law
 Fiji 5 years 5 years of lawful residence out of the previous 10 years Fijian nationality law
 France 5 years Yes Continuous residency. Two years continuous residency for applicants who have had at least two years of higher education in France. French nationality law
 Germany 8 years Yes, for EU/Swiss citizens and under certain conditions for others Continuous residence, including at least twelve months with an unrestricted right to stay. Required length of stay can be reduced by up to two years subject to meeting integration criteria. German nationality law
 Greece 7 years[52] Yes Greek nationality law
 Hungary 8 years Yes Continuous residence.[53] Hungarian nationality law
 Iceland 7 years[54] Yes Icelandic nationality law
 Ireland 5 years Yes 5 years over the last 9 years, including at least 1 year before applying.[55] The law provides an exemption to the residency requirements for persons who are "of Irish descent or associations". Irish nationality law
 Italy 10 years Yes The residence has to be continuous. The law provide some cases in which there is a faster access to naturalization: 3 years if at least one grandparent was/is Italian, 4 years for EU nationals, 5 years for refugees or stateless people. Italian nationality law
 Japan 5 years No Continuous residence. 3 years if married to a Japanese national. Japanese nationality law
 Kazakhstan 5 years No Kazakhstani nationality law
 Latvia 10 years Yes, under certain conditions Latvian nationality law
 Liberia 2 years No No person shall be naturalized unless he [sic] is a Negro or of Negro descent.[56] Although, Liberian law allows members of other races to hold permanent residency status.[57] Liberian nationality law
 Liechtenstein 10 years[58] Years spent in Liechtenstein under the age 20 count double Liechtenstein nationality law
 Lithuania 10 years No Continuous residence as a permanent resident. 7 years if married to a Lithuanian national.[59] Lithuanian nationality law
 Luxembourg 5 years Yes A minimum of 12 months' continuous residence prior to applying for naturalization. The applicant must pass the Luxembourgish language examinations or have had at least 7 years of education in a Luxembourgish school.[60] Luxembourgish nationality law
 Macedonia 8 years No (with limited exceptions) Continuous residence.[61] Macedonian nationality law
 Malawi 7 years 5 years for a person who is of an African race or has Commonwealth or Malawian ties Malawian nationality law
 Malta 5 years[62] or by using the Individual Investor Programme, a government run cash-for-passport program.[63] Maltese nationality law
 Moldova 10 years Yes 8 years for stateless citizens or recognised refugees Moldovan nationality law
 Monaco 10 years No Continuous residence.[64] Monégasque nationality law
 Montenegro 10 years[65] No, except under certain conditions Montenegrin nationality law
 Mozambique 5 years Yes Mozambican nationality law
 Myanmar No Foreigners cannot become naturalized citizens of Myanmar.[66] Myanmar nationality law
 Netherlands 5 years Yes (under certain conditions) Continuous residence[67] Dutch nationality law
 New Zealand 5 years Yes Continuous residence (reside in NZ for at least 240 days in each of those 5 years, 1,350 days in total) as a permanent resident immediately before the application[68] New Zealand nationality law
 Norway 7 years Yes (under certain conditions) 7 years out of the previous 10 (with out-of-realm vacations of up to 2 months per year) as a permanent resident immediately before the application[69] Norwegian nationality law
 Oman 20 years No Omani nationality law
 Paraguay 3 years[70] Paraguayan nationality law
 Peru 2 years Yes (under certain conditions) Continuous residence Peruvian nationality law
 Philippines 10 years (5 years if certain conditions are met)[16] Yes Continuous residence Philippine nationality law
 Poland 10 years Yes 10 years residence or 3 years permanent residence.[71] Polish nationality law
 Portugal 5 years Yes Continuous/non-continuous residence,[72] or a by using a government run cash-for-passport program, introduced in 2012/2013.[73] Portuguese nationality law
 Romania 8 years[74] Yes Romanian nationality law
 San Marino 30 years 15 years for foreigners married to a citizen of San Marino Sammarinese nationality law
 Russia 5 years Yes Continuous residence. 3 years if married to a Russian citizen. 1 year for valued specialists and refugees.[75] Russian nationality law
 Samoa 5 years[76] Samoan nationality law
 Serbia 3 years Yes Continuous residence[77] Serbian nationality law
 Slovakia 8 years[78] Partial Slovak nationality law
 Slovenia 10 years Yes, but naturalization normally requires giving up other citizenships 10 years residence, 5 years continuous before the application.[79] Slovenian nationality law
 Spain 10 years[80] Partial 2 years for people from Latin America, Andorra, Portugal, Philippines or Equatorial Guinea[81] / 5 years, by using a government run cash-for-passport program dupped the "golden visa", introduced in 2012/2013.[73] Spanish nationality law
 Somalia 7 years No Somalian nationality law
 South Korea 5 years Partial
Only allowed for foreign born nationals who married to a Korean citizen; Korean men with multiple nationalities by birth who served in the Republic of Korea Armed Forces; Korean women with multiple nationalities by birth who have vowed their intention not to exercise their foreign nationality in Korea; and overseas Koreans at least 65 years of age
Continuous residence. 3 years continuous if married to a South Korean national.[82] South Korean nationality law
 Sweden 5 years Yes Continuous residence. 4 years continuous for stateless people and refugees.[83] Swedish nationality law
  Switzerland 12 years Yes The years between the age of 10 and 20 count double.[84] Swiss nationality law
 Taiwan 5 years Partial Nationality law of the Republic of China
 Thailand 5 years No Continuous residence, The applicant must have knowledge of the Thai language.
Residence and language requirememts are waived for spouses and children of Thai citizens.[85]
Thai nationality law
 Togo 5 years No Togolese nationality law
 Tonga 5 years[86] Tongan nationality law
 Turkey 5 years Yes Continuous residence. The applicant must be a fluent speaker of the Turkish language.[87] Turkish nationality law
 Ukraine 5 years Yes Ukrainian nationality law
 Uruguay 5 years Yes 3 years if the applicant has a Uruguayan family member. Uruguayan nationality law
 Uzbekistan 5 years No Uzbekistani nationality law

[88]

Other Languages
العربية: تجنيس
asturianu: Naturalización
čeština: Naturalizace
Deutsch: Einbürgerung
Ελληνικά: Πολιτογράφηση
español: Naturalización
français: Naturalisation
한국어: 귀화
Bahasa Indonesia: Naturalisasi
עברית: התאזרחות
Кыргызча: Натурализация
lietuvių: Natūralizacija
Bahasa Melayu: Naturalisasi
Nederlands: Naturalisatie
日本語: 帰化
português: Naturalização
Simple English: Naturalization
српски / srpski: Натурализација
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Naturalizacija
Türkçe: Telsik
українська: Натуралізація
粵語: 歸化
中文: 归化