Naples

Naples
Napoli
Comune
Comune di Napoli
Top:Panorama view of Mergellina Port, Mergellina, Chiaia area, over view of Mount Vesuvius, Second left:Naples Directional Center (Centro Direzionale di Napoli) and Spaccanapoli Street, Second right:Via Toledo Street, Third left:Naples Media Center, Third right:Castel Nuovo (Maschio Angioino), Bottom:View of Centro Direzionale di Napoli, from Naples Railroad Station
Top:Panorama view of Mergellina Port, Mergellina, Chiaia area, over view of Mount Vesuvius, Second left:Naples Directional Center (Centro Direzionale di Napoli) and Spaccanapoli Street, Second right:Via Toledo Street, Third left:Naples Media Center, Third right:Castel Nuovo (Maschio Angioino), Bottom:View of Centro Direzionale di Napoli, from Naples Railroad Station
Flag of Naples
Flag
Coat of arms of Naples
Coat of arms
Nickname(s): Partenope
Map of comune of Naples (Metropolitan city of Naples, region Campania, Italy).svg
Naples is located in Campania
Naples
Naples
Location of Naples in Campania
Naples is located in Italy
Naples
Naples
Naples (Italy)
Naples is located in Europe
Naples
Naples
Naples (Europe)
Coordinates: 40°50′N 14°15′E / 40°50′N 14°15′E / 40.833; 14.250
CountryItaly
RegionCampania
Metropolitan cityNaples (NA)
Government
 • MayorLuigi de Magistris (DA)
Area
 • Total117.27 km2 (45.28 sq mi)
Elevation17 m (56 ft)
Population (30 September 2017)[1][2]
 • Total967,068
 • Density8,200/km2 (21,000/sq mi)
Demonym(s)Neapolitan(s), Napolitan(s) (English)
Napoletano, Napoletani or Partenopeo, Partenopei (Italian)
Napulitano, Napulitani (Neapolitan)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code80100, 80121-80147
Dialing code081
ISTAT code063049
Patron saintJanuarius
Saint day19 September
WebsiteOfficial website

Naples (z/; Italian: Napoli [ˈnaːpoli ] (About this sound listen), Neapolitan: Napule [ˈnɑːpələ] or [ˈnɑːpulə]; Latin: Neapolis; Ancient Greek: Νεάπολις, lit. 'new city') is the regional capital of Campania and the third-largest municipality in Italy after Rome and Milan. In 2017, around 967,069 people lived within the city's administrative limits while its province-level municipality has a population of 3,115,320 residents. Its continuously built-up metropolitan area (that stretches beyond the boundaries of the Metropolitan City of Naples) is the second or third largest metropolitan area in Italy.

First settled by Greeks in the second millennium BC, Naples is one of the oldest continuously inhabited urban areas in the world.[3] In the ninth century BC, a colony known as Parthenope or Παρθενόπη was established on the Island of Megaride,[4] later refounded as Neápolis in the sixth century BC.[5] The city was an important part of Magna Graecia, played a major role in the merging of Greek and Roman society and a significant cultural centre under the Romans.[6] It was capital of the Duchy of Naples (661-1139), then the Kingdom of Naples (1282 and 1816) and finally the Two Sicilies until the unification of Italy in 1861.

Between 1925 and 1936, Naples was expanded and upgraded by Benito Mussolini's government but severely damaged by Allied bombing during World War II, leading to extensive post-1945 reconstruction work.[7] Naples has experienced significant economic growth in recent decades, helped by the construction of the Centro Direzionale business district and an advanced transportation network, which includes the Alta Velocità high-speed rail link to Rome and Salerno and an expanded subway network. Naples is the third-largest urban economy in Italy, after Milan and Rome[8]. The Port of Naples is one of the most important in Europe and home of the Allied Joint Force Command Naples, the NATO body that oversees North Africa, the Sahel and Middle East.[9]

Naples' historic city centre is the largest in Europe and a UNESCO World Heritage Site, with a wide range of culturally and historically significant sites nearby, including the Palace of Caserta and the Roman ruins of Pompeii and Herculaneum. Naples is also known for its natural beauties such as Posillipo, Phlegraean Fields, Nisida, and Vesuvius.[10]

Neapolitan cuisine is synonymous with pizza, which originated in the city but it includes many other less well-known dishes and is the Italian city with the highest number of accredited stars from the Michelin Guide.[11]

The best known sports team in Naples is the Serie A club S.S.C. Napoli, two-time Italian champions who play at the San Paolo Stadium in the southwest of the city.

History

Greek birth and Roman acquisition

Mount Echia the place where the polis of Parthenope arose
The Columns of the Temple of Castor and Pollux incorporated in the facade of San Paolo Maggiore
A scene featuring the siren Parthenope, the mythological founder of Naples.[12]

Naples has been inhabited since the Neolithic period.[13] The earliest Greek settlements were established in the Naples area in the second millennium BC. Sailors from the Greek island of Rhodes established a small commercial port called Parthenope (Παρθενόπη, meaning "Pure Eyes", a Siren in Greek mythology) on the island of Megaride in the ninth century BC.[14][15] By the eighth century BC, the settlement had expanded to include Monte Echia.[16] In the sixth century BC the new urban zone of Neápolis (Νεάπολις) was founded on the plain, eventually becoming one of the foremost cities of Magna Graecia.

The city grew rapidly due to the influence of the powerful Greek city-state of Syracuse,[4] and became an ally of the Roman Republic against Carthage. During the Samnite Wars, the city, now a bustling centre of trade, was captured by the Samnites;[17] however, the Romans soon captured the city from them and made it a Roman colony.[18] During the Punic Wars, the strong walls surrounding Neápolis repelled the invading forces of the Carthaginian general Hannibal.[18]

Naples was greatly respected by the Romans as a paragon of Hellenistic culture. During the Roman era, the people of Naples maintained their Greek language and customs, while the city was expanded with elegant Roman villas, aqueducts, and public baths. Landmarks such as the Temple of Dioscures were built, and many emperors chose to holiday in the city, including Claudius and Tiberius.[18] Virgil, the author of Rome's national epic, the Aeneid, received part of his education in the city, and later resided in its environs.

It was during this period that Christianity first arrived in Naples; the apostles Peter and Paul are said to have preached in the city. Januarius, who would become Naples' patron saint, was martyred there in the fourth century AD.[19] The last emperor of the Western Roman Empire, Romulus Augustulus, was exiled to Naples by the Germanic king Odoacer in the fifth century AD.

Duchy of Naples

Following the decline of the Western Roman Empire, Naples was captured by the Ostrogoths, a Germanic people, and incorporated into the Ostrogothic Kingdom.[20] However, Belisarius of the Byzantine Empire recaptured Naples in 536, after entering the city via an aqueduct.[21]

In 543, during the Gothic Wars, Totila briefly took the city for the Ostrogoths, but the Byzantines seized control of the area following the Battle of Mons Lactarius on the slopes of Vesuvius.[20] Naples was expected to keep in contact with the Exarchate of Ravenna, which was the centre of Byzantine power on the Italian Peninsula.[22]

After the exarchate fell, a Duchy of Naples was created. Although Naples' Greco-Roman culture endured, it eventually switched allegiance from Constantinople to Rome under Duke Stephen II, putting it under papal suzerainty by 763.[22]

The years between 818 and 832 were tumultuous in regard to Naples' relations with the Byzantine Emperor, with numerous local pretenders feuding for possession of the ducal throne.[23] Theoctistus was appointed without imperial approval; his appointment was later revoked and Theodore II took his place. However, the disgruntled general populace chased him from the city, and instead elected Stephen III, a man who minted coins with his own initials, rather than those of the Byzantine Emperor. Naples gained complete independence by the early ninth century.[23] During the 850s, the city was sacked by Saracen raiders.[24]

The duchy was under the direct control of the Lombards for a brief period, after the capture by Pandulf IV of the Principality of Capua, a long-term rival of Naples; however, this regime lasted only three years before the Greco-Roman-influenced dukes were reinstated.[23] By the 11th century, Naples had begun to employ Norman mercenaries to battle their rivals; Duke Sergius IV hired Rainulf Drengot to wage war on Capua for him.[25]

By 1137, the Normans had attained great influence in Italy, controlling previously independent principalities and duchies such as Capua, Benevento, Salerno, Amalfi, Sorrento and Gaeta; it was in this year that Naples, the last independent duchy in the southern part of the peninsula, came under Norman control. The last ruling duke of the duchy, Sergius VII, was forced to surrender to Roger II, who had proclaimed himself King of Sicily seven years earlier. Naples thus joined the Kingdom of Sicily, with Palermo as the capital.[26]

Kingdom of Naples

Norman to Angevin

The Castel Nuovo a.k.a. Maschio Angioino, a seat of medieval kings of Naples, Aragon and Spain.

After a period of Norman rule, the Kingdom of Sicily went to the Hohenstaufens, a German royal house.[27] The University of Naples, the first university in Europe dedicated to training secular administrators,[28] was founded by Frederick II, making Naples the intellectual centre of the kingdom. Conflict between the Hohenstaufens and the Papacy led in 1266 to Pope Innocent IV crowning the Angevin duke Charles I King of Sicily:[29] Charles officially moved the capital from Palermo to Naples, where he resided at the Castel Nuovo.[30] Having a great interest in architecture, Charles I imported French architects and workmen and was personally involved in several building projects in the city.[31] Many examples of Gothic architecture sprang up around Naples, including the Naples Cathedral, which remains the city's main church.[32]

In 1282, after the Sicilian Vespers, the Kingdom of Sicily was divided into two. The Angevin Kingdom of Naples included the southern part of the Italian peninsula, while the island of Sicily became the Aragonese Kingdom of Sicily.[29] Wars between the competing dynasties continued until the Peace of Caltabellotta in 1302, which saw Frederick III recognised as king of Sicily, while Charles II was recognised as king of Naples by Pope Boniface VIII.[29] Despite the split, Naples grew in importance, attracting Pisan and Genoese merchants,[33] Tuscan bankers, and some of the most prominent Renaissance artists of the time, such as Boccaccio, Petrarch and Giotto.[34] During the 14th century, the Hungarian Angevin king Louis the Great captured the city several times. In 1442, Alfonso I conquered Naples after his victory against the last Angevin king, René, and Naples was unified with Sicily again for a brief period.[35]

Aragonese and Spanish

French troops and artillery entering Naples in 1495, during the Italian War of 1494–98.

Sicily and Naples were separated in 1458, but remained dependencies of Aragon under Ferdinand I.[36] The new dynasty enhanced Naples' commercial standing by establishing relations with the Iberian Peninsula. Naples also became a centre of the Renaissance, with artists such as Laurana, da Messina, Sannazzaro and Poliziano arriving in the city.[37] In 1501, Naples came under direct rule from France under Louis XII, with the Neapolitan king Frederick being taken as a prisoner to France; however, this state of affairs did not last long, as Spain won Naples from the French at the Battle of Garigliano in 1503.[38]

Portrait of the 17th-century revolutionary leader Masaniello (painting by Onofrio Palumbo).

Following the Spanish victory, Naples became part of the Spanish Empire, and remained so throughout the Spanish Habsburg period.[38] The Spanish sent viceroys to Naples to directly deal with local issues: the most important of these viceroys was Pedro Álvarez de Toledo, who was responsible for considerable social, economic and urban reforms in the city; he also supported the activities of the Inquisition.[39][better source needed]

By the 17th century, Naples had become Europe's 2nd-largest city – second only to Paris – and the largest European Mediterranean city, with around 250,000 inhabitants.[40] The city was a major cultural centre during the Baroque era, being home to artists such as Caravaggio, Salvator Rosa and Bernini, philosophers such as Bernardino Telesio, Giordano Bruno, Tommaso Campanella and Giambattista Vico, and writers such as Giambattista Marino. A revolution led by the local fisherman Masaniello saw the creation of a brief independent Neapolitan Republic in 1647, though this lasted only a few months before Spanish rule was reasserted.[38] In 1656, an outbreak of bubonic plague killed about half of Naples' 300,000 inhabitants.[41][unreliable source?]

In 1714, Spanish rule over Naples came to an end as a result of the War of the Spanish Succession; the Austrian Charles VI ruled the city from Vienna through viceroys of his own.[42] However, the War of the Polish Succession saw the Spanish regain Sicily and Naples as part of a personal union, with the 1738 Treaty of Vienna recognising the two polities as independent under a cadet branch of the Spanish Bourbons.[43]

Naples depicted during the ephemeral Parthenopean Republic

During the time of Ferdinand IV, the effects of the French Revolution were felt in Naples: Horatio Nelson, an ally of the Bourbons, even arrived in the city in 1798 to warn against the French republicans. Ferdinand was forced to retreat and fled to Palermo, where he was protected by a British fleet.[44] However, Naples' lower class lazzaroni were strongly pious and royalist, favouring the Bourbons; in the mêlée that followed, they fought the Neapolitan pro-Republican aristocracy, causing a civil war.[44]

Eventually, the Republicans conquered Castel Sant'Elmo and proclaimed a Parthenopaean Republic, secured by the French Army.[44] A counter-revolutionary religious army of lazzaroni known as the sanfedisti under Cardinal Fabrizio Ruffo was raised; they met with great success, and the French were forced to surrender the Neapolitan castles, with their fleet sailing back to Toulon.[44]

Ferdinand IV was restored as king; however, after only seven years Napoleon conquered the kingdom and installed Bonapartist kings, including his brother Joseph Bonaparte (Spanish king).[45] With the help of the Austrian Empire and its allies, the Bonapartists were defeated in the Neapolitan War, and Ferdinand IV once again regained the throne and the kingdom.[45]

An 18th-century painting depicting an eruption of Mount Vesuvius.

Independent Two Sicilies

The Congress of Vienna in 1815 saw the kingdoms of Naples and Sicily combined to form the Two Sicilies,[45] with Naples as the capital city. In 1839, Naples became the first city on the Italian peninsula to have a railway, with the construction of the Naples–Portici railway.[46]

Italian unification and the present day

Entrance of Garibaldi in Naples on 7 September 1860

After the Expedition of the Thousand led by Giuseppe Garibaldi, which culminated in the controversial Siege of Gaeta, Naples became part of the Kingdom of Italy in 1861 as part of the Italian unification, ending the era of Bourbon rule. The kingdom of the Two Sicilies had been wealthy, and as many as 443.2 million ducats were taken from the old kingdom's banks as a contribution to the new Italian treasury.[47] The economy of the area formerly known as the Two Sicilies collapsed, leading to an unprecedented wave of emigration,[48] with an estimated 4 million people emigrating from the Naples area between 1876 and 1913.[49] In the forty years following unification, the population of Naples grew by only 26%, vs. 63% for Turin and 103% for Milan; however, by 1884, Naples was still the largest city in Italy with 496,499 inhabitants, or roughly 64,000 per square kilometre (more than twice the population density of Paris).[50]:11–14, 18

Public health conditions in certain areas of the city were poor, with twelve epidemics of cholera and typhoid fever causing the death of some 48,000 people in the half century 1834–1884, and a high (for the time) death rate of 31.84 per thousand even in the epidemic-free period 1878–1883.[50] Then in 1884, Naples fell victim to a major cholera epidemic, caused largely by the city's poor sewerage infrastructure. As response to these problems the government prompted since 1852 a radically transformation of the city called risanamento with the objective of improving the sewerage infrastructure and replacing the most clustered areas with large and airy avenues as this was considered the main cause of insalubrity. the project proved difficult to accomplish both politically and economically due to corruption as shown in the Saredo Inquiry, land speculation and extremely long bureaucracy, all these led to the project to take several decades to complete with contrasted results. The most notable transformations made were the construction of Via Caracciolo in place of the beach along the promenade, the creation of Galleria Umberto I and Galleria Principe and the construction of Corso Umberto.[51][52]

Bombardment of Naples by Allied troops, 1943

Naples was the most-bombed Italian city during World War II.[7] Though Neapolitans did not rebel under Italian Fascism, Naples was the first Italian city to rise up against German military occupation; the city was completely freed by 1 October 1943, when British and American forces entered the city.[53] Departing Germans burned the library of the university, as well as the Italian Royal Society. They also destroyed the city archives. Time bombs planted throughout the city continued to explode into November.[54] The symbol of the rebirth of Naples was the rebuilding of the church of Santa Chiara, which had been destroyed in a United States Army Air Corps bombing raid.[7]

Special funding from the Italian government's Fund for the South was provided from 1950 to 1984, helping the Neapolitan economy to improve somewhat, with city landmarks such as the Piazza del Plebiscito being renovated.[55] However, high unemployment continues to affect Naples; Italian media attributed the past city's waste disposal issues to the activity of the Camorra organised crime network.[56] In 2007, Silvio Berlusconi's government held senior meetings in Naples to demonstrate their intention to solve these problems.[57] However, the late-2000s recession had a severe impact on the city, intensifying its waste-management and unemployment problems.[58] By August 2011, the number of unemployed in the Naples area had risen to 250,000, sparking public protests against the economic situation.[59] In June 2012, allegations of blackmail, extortion and illicit contract tendering emerged in relation to the city's waste management issues.[60][61]

Naples hosted the 6th World Urban Forum in September 2012[62] and the 63rd International Astronautical Congress in October 2012.[63] In 2013, it was the host of the Universal Forum of Cultures. it will host the 2019 Summer Universiade

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Napels
Alemannisch: Neapel
አማርኛ: ናፖሊ
العربية: نابولي
aragonés: Nápols
asturianu: Nápoles
Aymar aru: Napoli
azərbaycanca: Neapol
تۆرکجه: ناپول
বাংলা: নেপলস
Bân-lâm-gú: Napoli
беларуская: Неапаль
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Нэапаль
български: Неапол
bosanski: Napulj
brezhoneg: Napoli
català: Nàpols
Чӑвашла: Неаполь
Cebuano: Napoles
čeština: Neapol
Cymraeg: Napoli
dansk: Napoli
Deitsch: Napols
Deutsch: Neapel
eesti: Napoli
Ελληνικά: Νάπολη
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Nâpol
español: Nápoles
Esperanto: Napolo
estremeñu: Nápoli
euskara: Napoli
فارسی: ناپل
føroyskt: Napoli
français: Naples
furlan: Napoli
Gaeilge: Napoli
Gàidhlig: Napoli
galego: Nápoles
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Napoli
한국어: 나폴리
Hausa: Napoli
հայերեն: Նեապոլ
हिन्दी: नापोलि
hornjoserbsce: Neapel
hrvatski: Napulj
Ido: Napoli
Bahasa Indonesia: Napoli
interlingua: Neapole
Interlingue: Napoli
Ирон: Неаполь
íslenska: Napolí
italiano: Napoli
עברית: נאפולי
Basa Jawa: Napoli
Kapampangan: Naples
ქართული: ნეაპოლი
қазақша: Неаполь
Kiswahili: Napoli
коми: Неаполь
Ladino: Napoli
лезги: Неаполь
Latina: Neapolis
latviešu: Neapole
Lëtzebuergesch: Neapel
lietuvių: Neapolis
Ligure: Nappoli
lingála: Nápoli
lumbaart: Napul
magyar: Nápoly
македонски: Неапол
മലയാളം: നാപ്പൊളി
मराठी: नापोली
مصرى: نابولى
مازِرونی: ناپولی
Bahasa Melayu: Napoli
Nederlands: Napels (stad)
नेपाल भाषा: नेपल्स
日本語: ナポリ
Napulitano: Napule
нохчийн: Неаполь
Nordfriisk: Neapel
norsk: Napoli
norsk nynorsk: Napoli
occitan: Nàpols
олык марий: Неаполь
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Neapol (shahar)
پنجابی: نیپلز
Papiamentu: Napoli
Picard: Napoule
Piemontèis: Nàpoli
Plattdüütsch: Neapel
polski: Neapol
português: Nápoles
Qaraqalpaqsha: Neapol
română: Napoli
rumantsch: Napoli
Runa Simi: Napoli
русский: Неаполь
संस्कृतम्: नापोली
sardu: Nàpoli
Scots: Naples
shqip: Napoli
sicilianu: Nàpuli
Simple English: Naples
slovenčina: Neapol
slovenščina: Neapelj
ślůnski: Napoli
کوردی: ناپۆلی
српски / srpski: Напуљ
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Napulj
suomi: Napoli
svenska: Neapel
தமிழ்: நாபொலி
tarandíne: Napule
татарча/tatarça: Наполи
тоҷикӣ: Неапол
Türkçe: Napoli
Twi: Napoli
удмурт: Неаполь
українська: Неаполь
اردو: ناپولی
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: Naplés
vèneto: Nàpułi
vepsän kel’: Napol'
Tiếng Việt: Napoli
Volapük: Napoli
文言: 那不勒斯
West-Vlams: Noapels
Winaray: Napoles
吴语: 那不勒斯
ייִדיש: נאפאלי
Yorùbá: Naples
粵語: 拿坡利
žemaitėška: Neapuolės
中文: 那不勒斯