Nanotechnology

Nanotechnology ("nanotech") is manipulation of matter on an atomic, molecular, and supramolecular scale. The earliest, widespread description of nanotechnology[1][2] referred to the particular technological goal of precisely manipulating atoms and molecules for fabrication of macroscale products, also now referred to as molecular nanotechnology. A more generalized description of nanotechnology was subsequently established by the National Nanotechnology Initiative, which defines nanotechnology as the manipulation of matter with at least one dimension sized from 1 to 100 nanometers. This definition reflects the fact that quantum mechanical effects are important at this quantum-realm scale, and so the definition shifted from a particular technological goal to a research category inclusive of all types of research and technologies that deal with the special properties of matter which occur below the given size threshold. It is therefore common to see the plural form "nanotechnologies" as well as "nanoscale technologies" to refer to the broad range of research and applications whose common trait is size. Because of the variety of potential applications (including industrial and military), governments have invested billions of dollars in nanotechnology research. Through 2012, the USA has invested $3.7 billion using its National Nanotechnology Initiative, the European Union has invested $1.2 billion, and Japan has invested $750 million.[3]

Nanotechnology as defined by size is naturally very broad, including fields of science as diverse as surface science, organic chemistry, molecular biology, semiconductor physics, energy storage,[4][5] microfabrication,[6] molecular engineering, etc.[7] The associated research and applications are equally diverse, ranging from extensions of conventional device physics to completely new approaches based upon molecular self-assembly,[8] from developing new materials with dimensions on the nanoscale to direct control of matter on the atomic scale.

Scientists currently debate the future implications of nanotechnology. Nanotechnology may be able to create many new materials and devices with a vast range of applications, such as in nanomedicine, nanoelectronics, biomaterials energy production, and consumer products. On the other hand, nanotechnology raises many of the same issues as any new technology, including concerns about the toxicity and environmental impact of nanomaterials,[9] and their potential effects on global economics, as well as speculation about various doomsday scenarios. These concerns have led to a debate among advocacy groups and governments on whether special regulation of nanotechnology is warranted.

Origins

The concepts that seeded nanotechnology were first discussed in 1959 by renowned physicist Richard Feynman in his talk There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom, in which he described the possibility of synthesis via direct manipulation of atoms. The term "nano-technology" was first used by Norio Taniguchi in 1974, though it was not widely known.

Comparison of Nanomaterials Sizes

Inspired by Feynman's concepts, K. Eric Drexler used the term "nanotechnology" in his 1986 book Engines of Creation: The Coming Era of Nanotechnology, which proposed the idea of a nanoscale "assembler" which would be able to build a copy of itself and of other items of arbitrary complexity with atomic control. Also in 1986, Drexler co-founded The Foresight Institute (with which he is no longer affiliated) to help increase public awareness and understanding of nanotechnology concepts and implications.

Thus, emergence of nanotechnology as a field in the 1980s occurred through convergence of Drexler's theoretical and public work, which developed and popularized a conceptual framework for nanotechnology, and high-visibility experimental advances that drew additional wide-scale attention to the prospects of atomic control of matter. In the 1980s, two major breakthroughs sparked the growth of nanotechnology in modern era.

First, the invention of the scanning tunneling microscope in 1981 which provided unprecedented visualization of individual atoms and bonds, and was successfully used to manipulate individual atoms in 1989. The microscope's developers Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer at IBM Zurich Research Laboratory received a Nobel Prize in Physics in 1986.[10][11] Binnig, Quate and Gerber also invented the analogous atomic force microscope that year.

Buckminsterfullerene C60, also known as the buckyball, is a representative member of the carbon structures known as fullerenes. Members of the fullerene family are a major subject of research falling under the nanotechnology umbrella.

Second, Fullerenes were discovered in 1985 by Harry Kroto, Richard Smalley, and Robert Curl, who together won the 1996 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.[12][13] C60 was not initially described as nanotechnology; the term was used regarding subsequent work with related graphene tubes (called carbon nanotubes and sometimes called Bucky tubes) which suggested potential applications for nanoscale electronics and devices.

In the early 2000s, the field garnered increased scientific, political, and commercial attention that led to both controversy and progress. Controversies emerged regarding the definitions and potential implications of nanotechnologies, exemplified by the Royal Society's report on nanotechnology.[14] Challenges were raised regarding the feasibility of applications envisioned by advocates of molecular nanotechnology, which culminated in a public debate between Drexler and Smalley in 2001 and 2003.[15]

Meanwhile, commercialization of products based on advancements in nanoscale technologies began emerging. These products are limited to bulk applications of nanomaterials and do not involve atomic control of matter. Some examples include the Silver Nano platform for using silver nanoparticles as an antibacterial agent, nanoparticle-based transparent sunscreens, carbon fiber strengthening using silica nanoparticles, and carbon nanotubes for stain-resistant textiles.[16][17]

Governments moved to promote and fund research into nanotechnology, such as in the U.S. with the National Nanotechnology Initiative, which formalized a size-based definition of nanotechnology and established funding for research on the nanoscale, and in Europe via the European Framework Programmes for Research and Technological Development.

By the mid-2000s new and serious scientific attention began to flourish. Projects emerged to produce nanotechnology roadmaps[18][19] which center on atomically precise manipulation of matter and discuss existing and projected capabilities, goals, and applications.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Nanotegnologie
Alemannisch: Nanotechnologie
العربية: تقنية النانو
aragonés: Nanotecnolochía
asturianu: Nanoteunoloxía
azərbaycanca: Nanotexnologiya
Bân-lâm-gú: Nano-ki-su̍t
башҡортса: Нанотехнология
беларуская: Нанатэхналогія
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Нанатэхналёгіі
български: Нанотехнология
Boarisch: Nanotechnologie
bosanski: Nanotehnologija
čeština: Nanotechnologie
Cymraeg: Nanotechnoleg
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Nanutecnulugìa
español: Nanotecnología
Esperanto: Nanoteknologio
français: Nanotechnologie
한국어: 나노 기술
hrvatski: Nanotehnologija
Bahasa Indonesia: Nanoteknologi
íslenska: Örtækni
italiano: Nanotecnologia
Kapampangan: Nanotechnology
latviešu: Nanotehnoloģija
lietuvių: Nanotechnologija
Limburgs: Nanotechnologie
македонски: Нанотехнологија
Bahasa Melayu: Nanoteknologi
မြန်မာဘာသာ: နာနိုနည်းပညာ
Nederlands: Nanotechnologie
नेपाल भाषा: नेनोटेक्नोलोजी
norsk nynorsk: Nanoteknologi
português: Nanotecnologia
română: Nanotehnologie
Simple English: Nanotechnology
slovenčina: Nanotechnológia
slovenščina: Nanotehnika
Soomaaliga: Tiknolajiga nano
српски / srpski: Нанотехнологија
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Nanotehnologija
Basa Sunda: Nanotéhnologi
svenska: Nanoteknik
Türkçe: Nanoteknoloji
Türkmençe: Nanotehnologiýa
українська: Нанотехнології
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: نانو تېخنىكىسى
Tiếng Việt: Công nghệ nano
文言: 毫微之技
粵語: 納米科技
žemaitėška: Nanuoteknuoluogėjė
中文: 纳米技术