Mythology

Heracles capturing Cerberus

Mythology refers variously to the collected myths of a group of people[1] or to the study of such myths.[2]

A folklore genre, myth is a feature of every culture. Many sources for myths have been proposed, ranging from personification of nature or personification of natural phenomena, to truthful or hyperbolic accounts of historical events to explanations of existing rituals. A culture's collective mythology helps convey belonging, shared and religious experiences, behavioral models, and moral and practical lessons.

The study of myth began in ancient history. Rival classes of the Greek myths by Euhemerus, Plato and Sallustius were developed by the Neoplatonists and later revived by Renaissance mythographers. The nineteenth-century comparative mythology reinterpreted myth as a primitive and failed counterpart of science (Tylor), a "disease of language" (Müller), or a misinterpretation of magical ritual (Frazer).

Recent approaches often view myths as manifestations of psychological, cultural, or societal truths, rather than as inaccurate historical accounts.

Etymology

Odysseus Overcome by Demodocus' Song, by Francesco Hayez, 1813–15

The term mythology predates the word myth by centuries.[5] It first appeared in the fifteenth century,[7] borrowed from the Middle French term mythologie. The word mythology, ("exposition of myths"), comes from Middle French mythologie, from Late Latin mythologia, from Greek μυθολογία mythología ("legendary lore, a telling of mythic legends; a legend, story, tale") from μῦθος mythos ("myth") and -λογία -logia ("study").[8][9] Both terms translated the subject of Latin author Fulgentius' fifth-century Mythologiæ, which was concerned with the explication of Greek and Roman stories about their gods, commonly referred to as classical mythology. Although Fulgentius' conflation with the contemporary African Saint Fulgentius is now questioned,[10] the Mythologiæ explicitly treated its subject matter as allegories requiring interpretation and not as true events.[11]

The word mythología [μυθολογία] appears in Plato, but was used as a general term for "fiction" or "story-telling" of any kind,[9] combining mỹthos [μῦθος, "narrative, fiction"] and -logía [-λογία, "discourse, able to speak about"].[12] From Lydgate until the seventeenth or eighteenth-century, mythology was similarly used to mean a moral, fable, allegory or a parable.[9] From its earliest use in reference to a collection of traditional stories or beliefs,[14] mythology implied the falsehood of the stories being described. It came to be applied by analogy with similar bodies of traditional stories among other polytheistic cultures around the world.[9] The Greek loanword mythos[16] (pl. mythoi) and Latinate mythus[18] (pl. mythi) both appeared in English before the first example of myth in 1830.[21]

Other Languages
Адыгэбзэ: Мифологиэ
Afrikaans: Mitologie
Alemannisch: Mythologie
አማርኛ: አፈ፡ታሪክ
العربية: علم الأساطير
aragonés: Mitolochía
armãneashti: Mythologhie
asturianu: Mitoloxía
azərbaycanca: Mifologiya
تۆرکجه: میتولوژی
башҡортса: Мифология
беларуская: Міфалогія
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Міталёгія
български: Митология
Boarisch: Mithologie
bosanski: Mitologija
brezhoneg: Mitologiezh
буряад: Мифологи
català: Mitologia
Чӑвашла: Халаплăх
čeština: Mytologie
corsu: Mitulugia
Cymraeg: Mytholeg
dansk: Mytologi
Deutsch: Mythologie
Ελληνικά: Μυθολογία
español: Mitología
Esperanto: Mitologio
euskara: Mitologia
Fiji Hindi: Mythology
français: Mythologie
Frysk: Mytology
furlan: Mitologjie
Gàidhlig: Miotas-eòlas
galego: Mitoloxía
한국어: 신화학
hrvatski: Mitologija
Ilokano: Mitolohia
Bahasa Indonesia: Mitologi
interlingua: Mythologia
Interlingue: Mitologie
íslenska: Goðafræði
italiano: Mitologia
עברית: מיתולוגיה
Basa Jawa: Mitologi
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಪುರಾಣ
къарачай-малкъар: Мифология
ქართული: მითოლოგია
қазақша: Мифология
kurdî: Mîtolojî
Кыргызча: Мифология
Ladino: Mitolojiya
Latina: Mythologia
latviešu: Mitoloģija
Lëtzebuergesch: Mythologie
lietuvių: Mitologija
Ligure: Mitologia
Limburgs: Mythologie
Livvinkarjala: Mifolougii
magyar: Mitológia
македонски: Митологија
მარგალური: მითოლოგია
مازِرونی: اسطوره شناسی
Mirandés: Mitologie
монгол: Домог үлгэр
Nederlands: Mythologie
日本語: 神話学
Napulitano: Mitologgia
нохчийн: Мифологи
Norfuk / Pitkern: Mitholijii
norsk: Mytologi
norsk nynorsk: Mytologi
Nouormand: Mythologie
Novial: Mitologia
occitan: Mitologia
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Mifologiya
پنجابی: مائتھالوجی
Patois: Mitaloji
Piemontèis: Mitologìa
Plattdüütsch: Mythologie
polski: Mitologia
português: Mitologia
Qaraqalpaqsha: Mifologiya
română: Mitologie
русиньскый: Міфолоґія
русский: Мифология
саха тыла: Митология
संस्कृतम्: मिथकशास्त्रम्
Seeltersk: Mythologie
shqip: Mitologjia
sicilianu: Mituluggìa
Simple English: Mythology
slovenčina: Mytológia (veda)
slovenščina: Mitologija
کوردی: میتۆلۆژیا
српски / srpski: Митологија
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Mitologija
suomi: Mytologia
svenska: Mytologi
Tagalog: Mitolohiya
татарча/tatarça: Мифология
тоҷикӣ: Ривоятҳо
Türkçe: Mitoloji
українська: Міфологія
Vahcuengh: Gojgaeqfangz
vèneto: Mitołogìa
Tiếng Việt: Thần thoại
Winaray: Mitolohiya
吴语: 神話
ייִדיש: מיטאלאגיע
粵語: 神話
Zeêuws: Mytholohie
žemaitėška: Mituoluogėjė
中文: 神话