History and development
sheet music publishers Edward B. Marks and Joe Stern hired electrician George Thomas and various performers to promote sales of their song "
The Little Lost Child".
 Using a
magic lantern, Thomas projected a series of still images on a screen simultaneous to live performances. This would become a popular form of entertainment known as the
illustrated song, the first step toward music video.
1926–1959: Talkies, soundies, and shorts
In 1926, with the arrival of "
musical short films were produced.
Vitaphone shorts (produced by
Warner Bros.) featured many bands, vocalists and dancers. Animation artist
Max Fleischer introduced a series of sing-along short cartoons called
Screen Songs, which invited audiences to sing along to popular songs by "following the bouncing ball", which is similar to a modern karaoke machine. Early 1930s cartoons featured popular musicians performing their hit songs on-camera in live-action segments during the
cartoons. The early animated films by
Walt Disney, such as the
Silly Symphonies shorts and especially
Fantasia, which featured several interpretations of classical pieces, were built around music. The
Warner Brothers cartoons, even today billed as
Looney Tunes and
Merrie Melodies, were initially fashioned around specific songs from upcoming Warner Brothers
musical films. Live action musical shorts, featuring such popular performers as
Cab Calloway, were also distributed to theaters.
Bessie Smith appeared in a two-reel short film called
St. Louis Blues (1929) featuring a dramatized performance of the hit song. Numerous other musicians appeared in short musical subjects during this period.
Soundies, produced and released from 1940 to 1947, were musical films that often included short dance sequences, similar to later music videos.
In the mid-1940s, musician
Louis Jordan made short films for his songs, some of which were spliced together into a feature film,
Lookout Sister. These films were, according to music historian
Donald Clarke, the "ancestors" of music video.
Musicals of the 1950s led to short-form music videos
Musical films were another important precursor to music video, and several well-known music videos have imitated the style of classic Hollywood musicals from the 1930s to the 1950s. One of the best-known examples is Madonna's 1985 video for "
Material Girl" (directed by
 which was closely modelled on
Jack Cole's staging of "
Diamonds Are A Girl's Best Friend" from the film
Gentlemen Prefer Blondes. Several of
Michael Jackson's videos show the unmistakable influence of the dance sequences in classic Hollywood musicals, including the landmark "
Thriller" and the
Martin Scorsese-directed "
Bad", which was influenced by the stylised dance "fights" in the film version of
West Side Story.
 According to the
Internet Accuracy Project,
disc jockey–singer J. P. "
The Big Bopper" Richardson was the first to coin the phrase "music video", in 1959.
1950s: Early music clips
In his autobiography, Tony Bennett claims to have created "...the first music video" when he was filmed walking along the
Hyde Park, London in 1956, with the resulting clip being set to his recording of the song "
Stranger in Paradise".
 The clip was sent to UK and US television stations and aired on shows including
The oldest example of a promotional music video with similarities to more abstract, modern videos seems to be the
Czech "Dáme si do bytu" ("Let's get to the apartment") created in 1958 and directed by
1960–1973: Promotional clips and others
In the late 1950s
Scopitone, a visual jukebox, was invented in France and short films were produced by many French artists, such as
Jacques Dutronc, and the Belgian
Jacques Brel to accompany their songs. Its use spread to other countries, and similar machines such as the Cinebox in Italy and Color-Sonic in the USA were patented.
 In 1961, for the Canadian show
Singalong Jubilee, Manny Pittson began pre-recording the music audio, went on-location and taped various visuals with the musicians lip-synching, then edited the audio and video together. Most music numbers were taped in-studio on stage, and the location shoot "videos" were to add variety.
 In 1964,
experimental short film,
Scorpio Rising used popular songs instead of dialog.
The Moody Blues producer,
Alex Murray, wanted to promote his version of "
Go Now". The short film clip he produced and directed to promote the single has a striking visual style that predates
Queen's similar "
Bohemian Rhapsody" video by a full decade. It also predates what
the Beatles did with promotional films of their singles "
Rain" and "
Paperback Writer", both released in 1966.
In the same year, the Beatles starred in their first feature film,
A Hard Day's Night, directed by
Richard Lester. Shot in
black-and-white and presented as a
mock documentary, it interspersed comedic and dialogue sequences with musical tones. The musical sequences furnished basic templates on which countless subsequent music videos were modeled. It was the direct model for the successful US TV series
The Monkees (1966–1968), which similarly consisted of film segments that were created to accompany various Monkees songs.
 The Beatles' second feature,
Help! (1965), was a much more lavish affair, filmed in colour in London and on international locations. The title track sequence, filmed in black-and-white, is arguably one of the prime archetypes of the modern performance-style music video, employing rhythmic cross-cutting, contrasting long shots and close-ups, and unusual shots and camera angles, such as the shot 50 seconds into the song, in which George Harrison's left hand and the neck of his guitar are seen in sharp focus in the foreground while the completely out-of-focus figure of John Lennon sings in the background.
In 1965, the Beatles began making promotional clips (then known as "filmed inserts") for distribution and broadcast in other countries—primarily the USA—so they could promote their record releases without having to make in-person appearances. Their first batch of promo videos recorded in late 1965 (including their then-current single, "
We Can Work It Out"), were fairly straightforward mimed-in-studio performance pieces (albeit sometimes in silly sets) and meant to blend in fairly seamlessly with television shows like
Top of the Pops and
Hullabaloo. By the time the Beatles stopped touring in late 1966, their promotional films, like their recordings, had become highly sophisticated. In May 1966 they filmed two sets of colour promotional clips for their current single "
Paperback Writer" all directed by
 who went on to direct
The Rolling Stones Rock and Roll Circus and the Beatles' final film,
Let It Be. The colour promotional clips for "
Strawberry Fields Forever" and "
Penny Lane", made in early 1967 and directed by
 took the promotional film format to a new level. They used techniques borrowed from underground and avant garde film, including reversed film and slow motion, dramatic lighting, unusual camera angles and color filtering added in post-production. At the end of 1967 the group released their third film, the one hour, made-for-television project
Magical Mystery Tour; it was written and directed by the group and first broadcast on the
Boxing Day 1967. Although poorly received at the time for lacking a narrative structure, it showed the group to be accomplished music video makers in their own right.
Concert films were being released in the mid-1960s, at least as early as 1964, with the
The monochrome 1965 clip for
Bob Dylan's "
Subterranean Homesick Blues" filmed by
D. A. Pennebaker was featured in Pennebaker's Dylan film documentary
Dont Look Back. Eschewing any attempt to simulate performance or present a narrative, the clip shows Dylan standing in a city back alley, silently shuffling a series of large cue cards (bearing key words from the song's lyrics). Many "filmed inserts" were produced by UK artists so they could be screened on TV when the bands were not available to appear live.
Pink Floyd were pioneers in producing promotional films for their songs including "
San Francisco: Film", directed by
Anthony Stern, "
Arnold Layne" and "
Interstellar Overdrive", the latter directed by
Peter Whitehead, who also made several pioneering clips for
The Rolling Stones between 1966 and 1968. In the UK
The Kinks made one of the first "
plot" promo clips for a song. For their single "
Dead End Street" (1966) a miniature comic movie was made. The BBC reportedly refused to air the clip because it was considered to be in "poor taste".
The Who featured in several promotional clips in this period, beginning with their 1965 clip for "
I Can't Explain". Their plot clip for "
Happy Jack" (1966) shows the band acting like a gang of thieves. The promo film to "Call Me Lightning" (1968) tells a story of how drummer
Keith Moon came to join the group: The other three band members are having tea inside what looks like an abandoned hangar when suddenly a "bleeding box" arrives, out of which jumps a fast-running, time lapse, Moon that the other members subsequently try to get a hold of in a sped-up slapstick chasing sequence to wind him down. In 1966,
Nancy Sinatra filmed a music video for her song "
These Boots Are Made for Walkin'".
Roy Orbison appeared in promotional clips, such as his 1968 hit, "Walk On."
The Rolling Stones appeared in many promotional clips for their songs in the 1960s. In 1966,
Peter Whitehead directed two promo clips for their single "
Have You Seen Your Mother, Baby, Standing In The Shadow?"
 In 1967, Whitehead directed a plot clip colour promo clip for the Stones single "
We Love You", which first aired in August 1967.
 This clip featured sped-up footage of the group recording in the studio, intercut with a mock trial that clearly alludes to the drug prosecutions of
Mick Jagger and
Keith Richards underway at that time. Jagger's girlfriend
Marianne Faithfull appears in the trial scenes and presents the "judge" (Richards) with what may be the infamous fur rug that had featured so prominently in the press reports of the drug bust at Richards' house in early 1967. When it is pulled back, it reveals an apparently naked Jagger with chains around his ankles. The clip concludes with scenes of the Stones in the studio intercut with footage that had previously been used in the "concert version" promo clip for "Have You Seen Your Mother, Baby". The group also filmed a colour promo clip for the song "2000 Light Years From Home" (from their album
Their Satanic Majesties Request) directed by
 In 1968, Michael Lindsay-Hogg directed three clips for their single "
Jumpin' Jack Flash" / "Child Of The Moon"—a colour clip for "Child Of The Moon" and two different clips for "Jumpin' Jack Flash". In 1968, they collaborated with
Jean-Luc Godard on the film
Sympathy for the Devil, which mixed Godard's politics with documentary footage of the song's evolution during recording sessions.
During late 1972–73
David Bowie featured in a series of promotional films directed by pop photographer
Mick Rock, who worked extensively with Bowie in this period. Rock directed and edited four clips to promote four consecutive David Bowie singles—"
John, I'm Only Dancing" (May 1972), "
The Jean Genie" (Nov. 1972), the December 1972 US re-release of "
Space Oddity" and the 1973 release of the single "
Life on Mars?" (lifted from Bowie's earlier album
Hunky Dory). The clip for "John, I'm Only Dancing" was made with a budget of just
US$200 and filmed at the afternoon rehearsal for Bowie's
Rainbow Theatre concert on August 19, 1972. It shows Bowie and band miming to the record intercut with footage of Bowie's dancers
The Astronettes dancing on stage and behind a back-lit screen. The clip was turned down by the BBC, who reportedly found the homosexual overtones of the film distasteful, although Top of the Pops replaced it with footage of bikers and a dancer.
 The "Jean Genie" clip, produced for just US$350, was shot in one day and edited in less than two days. It intercuts footage of Bowie and band in concert with contrasting footage of the group in a photographic studio, wearing black stage outfits and standing against a white background. It also includes location footage with Bowie and
Cyrinda Foxe (a MainMan employee and a friend of David and
Angie Bowie) shot in San Francisco outside the famous
Mars Hotel, with Fox posing provocatively in the street while Bowie lounges against the wall, smoking.
Country music also picked up on the trend of promotional clips to go along with songs. Sam Lovullo, the producer of the television series
Hee Haw, said his show presented "what were, in reality, the first musical videos,"
 while JMI Records made the same claim with
Don Williams' 1973 song "The Shelter of Your Eyes."
 Country music historian Bob Millard wrote that JMI had pioneered the country music video concept by "producing a 3-minute film" to go along with Williams' song.
 Lovullo said his videos were conceptualized by having the show's staff go to nearby rural areas and film animals and farmers, before editing the footage to fit the storyline of a particular song. "The video material was a very workable production item for the show," he wrote. "It provided picture stories for songs. However, some of our guests felt the videos took attention away from their live performances, which they hoped would promote record sales. If they had a hit song, they didn't want to play it under comic barnyard footage." The concept's mixed reaction eventually spelled an end to the "video" concept on Hee Haw.
 Promotional videos of country music songs, however, continued to be produced.
1974–1980: Beginnings of music television
The Australian TV shows
Sounds, both of which premiered in 1974, were significant in developing and popularizing the music video genre in Australia and other countries, and in establishing the importance of music video clips as a means of promoting both emerging acts and new releases by established acts. In early 1974, former radio DJ
Graham Webb launched a weekly teen-oriented TV music show which screened on
ATN-7 on Saturday mornings; this was renamed Sounds Unlimited in 1975 and later shortened simply to Sounds. In need of material for the show, Webb approached Seven newsroom staffer
Russell Mulcahy and asked him to shoot film footage to accompany popular songs for which there were no purpose-made clips (e.g.
Harry Nilsson's "
Everybody's Talkin"). Using this method, Webb and Mulcahy assembled a collection of about 25 clips for the show. The success of his early efforts encouraged Mulcahy to quit his TV job and become a full-time director, and he made clips for several popular Australian acts including
 As it gained popularity, Countdown talent coordinator
Ian "Molly" Meldrum and producer Michael Shrimpton quickly realized that "film clips" were becoming an important new commodity in music marketing. Despite the show's minuscule budget, Countdown's original director
Paul Drane was able to create several memorable music videos especially for the show, including the classic film-clips for the AC/DC hits "
It's a Long Way to the Top (If You Wanna Rock 'n' Roll)" and "
 After relocating to the UK in the mid-1970s, Mulcahy made successful music videos for several noted British pop acts—his early UK credits included
XTC's "Making Plans for Nigel" (1979) and his landmark video for
The Buggles' "
Video Killed the Radio Star" (1979), which became the first music video played on
MTV in 1981.
In 1975, the British rock band
Bruce Gowers to make a promotional video to show their new single "
Bohemian Rhapsody" on the BBC music series
Top of the Pops. According to rock historian Paul Fowles, the song is "widely credited as the first global hit single for which an accompanying video was central to the marketing strategy".
Rolling Stone has said of "Bohemian Rhapsody": "Its influence cannot be overstated, practically inventing the music video seven years before MTV went on the air."
Video Concert Hall, created by Jerry Crowe and
Charles Henderson and launched on November 1, 1979, was the first nationwide video music programming on American television, predating MTV by almost three years.
USA Cable Network program
Night Flight was one of the first American programs to showcase these videos as an art form.
In 1980, the music video to
David Bowie's "
Ashes to Ashes" became the
most expensive ever made, having a production cost of $582,000 ($1,671,487 in 2016), the first music video to have a production cost of over $500,000.
 The video was made in
solarised color with stark black-and-white scenes and was filmed in multiple locations, including a padded room and a rocky shore.
 The video became one of the most iconic ever made at the time, and its complex nature is seen as significant in the evolution of the music video.
The same year, the New Zealand group
Split Enz had major success with the single "I Got You" and the album
True Colours, and later that year they produced a complete set of promo clips for each song on the album (directed by their percussionist,
Noel Crombie) and to market these on video cassette. This was followed a year later by the first American video album,
The Completion Backward Principle by
The Tubes, directed by the group's keyboard player,
Michael Cotten, which included two videos directed by Russell Mulcahy ("Talk to Ya Later" and "Don't Want to Wait Anymore").
 Among the first music videos were clips produced by
Michael Nesmith, who started making short musical films for
Saturday Night Live.
 In 1981, he released
Elephant Parts, the first winner of a
Grammy for music video, directed by William Dear.
 the independently produced
Video Concert Hall as being the first with nationwide video music programming on American television.
1981–1991: Music videos go mainstream
In 1981, the
U.S. video channel
MTV launched, airing "
Video Killed the Radio Star" and beginning an era of 24-hour-a-day music on television. With this new outlet for material, the music video would, by the mid-1980s, grow to play a central role in popular music marketing. Many important acts of this period, most notably
Adam and the Ants,
Duran Duran and
Madonna, owed a great deal of their success to the skillful construction and seductive appeal of their videos.
Two key innovations in the development of the modern music video were the development of relatively inexpensive and easy-to-use
video recording and editing equipment, and the development of visual effects created with techniques such as image
compositing. The advent of high-quality color videotape recorders and portable video cameras coincided with the DIY ethos of the
new wave era, enabling many pop acts to produce promotional videos quickly and cheaply, in comparison to the relatively high costs of using film. However, as the genre developed,
music video directors increasingly turned to 35 mm film as the preferred medium, while others mixed film and video. During the 1980s, music videos had become de rigueur for most recording artists. The phenomenon was famously parodied by
BBC television comedy program
Not The Nine O'Clock News who produced a spoof music video "Nice Video, Shame About The Song".
In this period, directors and the acts they worked with began to explore and expand the form and style of the genre, using more sophisticated effects in their videos, mixing film and video, and adding a storyline or plot to the music video. Occasionally videos were made in a non-representational form, in which the musical artist was not shown. Because music videos are mainly intended to promote the artist, such videos are comparatively rare; three early 1980s examples are
Bruce Springsteen's "
Atlantic City", directed by
David Mallet's video for
David Bowie and
Under Pressure", and
Ian Emes' video for
Duran Duran's "
The Chauffeur". One notable later example of the non-representational style is
Bill Konersman's innovative 1987 video for
Sign o' the Times"
 – influenced by Dylan's "Subterranean Homesick Blues" clip, it featured only the text of the song's lyrics.
In the early 1980s, music videos also began to explore political and social themes. Examples include the music videos for
David Bowie's "
China Girl" and "
Let's Dance" (1983) which both explored race issues.
 In an 1983 interview, Bowie spoke about the importance of using music videos in addressing social issues, "Let's try to use the video format as a platform for some kind of social observation, and not just waste it on trotting out and trying to enhance the public image of the singer involved".
In 1983, the most successful, influential and iconic music video of all time was released: the nearly 14-minute-long video for
Michael Jackson's song "
Thriller", directed by
John Landis. The video set new standards for production, having cost US$800,000 to film.
 The video for "Thriller", along with earlier videos by Jackson for his songs "
Billie Jean" and "
Beat It", were instrumental in getting music videos by
African American artists played on MTV. Prior to Jackson's success, videos by African-American artists were rarely played on MTV: according to MTV, this was because it initially conceived itself as a rock-music-oriented channel, although musician
Rick James was outspoken in his criticism of the cable channel, claiming in 1983 that MTV's refusal to air the music video for his song "
Super Freak" and clips by other African-American performers was "blatant racism".
On March 5, 1983,
Country Music Television, or CMT, was launched,
 created and founded by Glenn D. Daniels and uplinked from the Video World Productions facility in
Hendersonville, Tennessee. The
MuchMusic music channel was launched in
Canada in 1984. In 1984, MTV also launched the
MTV Video Music Awards (later to be known as the VMA's), an annual awards event that would come to underscore MTV's importance in the music industry. The inaugural event rewarded
the Beatles and
David Bowie with the
Video Vanguard Award for their work in pioneering the music video.
In 1985, MTV launched the channel
VH1 (then known as "VH-1: Video Hits One"), featuring softer music, and meant to cater to an older demographic than MTV.
MTV Europe was launched in 1987, and
MTV Asia in 1991. Another important development in music videos was the launch of
The Chart Show on the UK's
Channel 4 in 1986. This was a program which consisted entirely of music videos (the only outlet many videos had on British TV at the time ), without presenters. Instead, the videos were linked by then state of the art
computer graphics. The show moved to
ITV in 1989.
The video for the 1985
Dire Straits song "
Money for Nothing" made pioneering use of computer animation, and helped make the song an international hit. Ironically, the song itself was a wry comment on the music-video phenomenon, sung from the point of view of an appliance deliveryman both drawn to and repelled by the outlandish images and personalities that appeared on MTV. In 1986,
Peter Gabriel's song "
Sledgehammer" used special effects and animation techniques developed by British studio
Aardman Animation. The video for "Sledgehammer" would go on to be a phenomenal success
 and win nine MTV Video Music Awards.
In 1988, the MTV show
Yo! MTV Raps debuted; the show helped to bring
hip hop music to a mass audience for the first time.
1992–2004: Rise of the directors
In November 1992,
MTV began listing
directors with the artist and song credits, reflecting the fact that music videos had increasingly become an
auteur's medium. Directors such as
Mark Romanek and
Hype Williams all got their start around this time; all brought a unique vision and style to the videos they directed. Some of these directors, including, Gondry, Jonze, Sigismondi,
F. Gary Gray, went on to direct feature films. This continued a trend that had begun earlier with directors such as
Lasse Hallström and
Two of the videos directed by Romanek in 1995 are notable for being two of the three
most expensive music videos of all time:
Janet Jackson's "
Scream", which allegedly cost $7 million to produce, and Madonna's "
Bedtime Story", which cost a reported $5 million. From this, "Scream" is the most expensive video to date. In the mid to late 1990s,
Walter Stern directed "
The Prodigy, "
Bitter Sweet Symphony" by
The Verve, and "
 During this period, MTV launched channels around the world to show music videos produced in each local market:
MTV Latin America in 1993,
MTV India in 1996, and
MTV Mandarin in 1997, among others.
MTV2, originally called "M2" and meant to show more alternative and older music videos, debuted in 1996.
From 1991 to 2001, Billboard had its own Music Video Awards.
2005–present: The Internet becomes video-friendly
iFilm, which hosted short videos, including music videos, launched its service in 1997.
peer-to-peer file sharing service which ran between 1999 and 2001, enabled users to share video files, including those for music videos. By the mid-2000s, MTV and many of its sister channels had largely abandoned showing music videos in favor of
reality television shows, which were more popular with its audiences, and which MTV had itself helped to pioneer with the show
The Real World, which premiered in 1992.
2005 saw the launch of the website
YouTube, which made the viewing of online video much faster and easier;
Myspace's video functionality use similar technology. Such websites had a profound effect on the viewing of music videos; some artists began to see success as a result of videos seen mostly or entirely online. The band
OK Go may exemplify this trend, having achieved fame through the videos for two of their songs, "
A Million Ways" in 2005 and "
Here It Goes Again" in 2006, both of which first became well-known online (OK Go repeated the trick with another high-concept video in 2010, for their song "
This Too Shall Pass").
The 2008 video for
Pork and Beans" also captured this trend, by including at least 20
YouTube celebrities; the single became the most successful of Weezer's career, in chart performance. In 2007, the
RIAA issued cease-and-desist letters to YouTube users to prevent single users from sharing videos, which are the property of the music labels. After its merger with
Google, YouTube assured the RIAA that they would find a way to pay
royalties through a bulk agreement with the major record labels. This was complicated by the fact that not all labels share the same policy toward music videos: some welcome the development and upload music videos to various online outlets themselves, viewing music videos as free
advertising for their artists, while other labels view music videos not as an advertisement, but as the product itself.
Thirty Seconds to Mars' music video "
Kings and Queens" was uploaded to YouTube on the same day of its release, where it has garnered over one hundred million views.
 It also received over forty million plays on MySpace. "Kings and Queens" was featured as
iTunes Store video of the week and was one of the most downloaded videos ever to be featured.
 The video also received four nominations at the
2010 MTV Video Music Awards, making 30 Seconds to Mars the most nominated rock artist in VMA history for a single year.
MTV itself now provides streams of artists' music videos, while
AOL's recently launched AOL Music features a vast collection of advertising supported streaming videos. The Internet has become the primary growth income market for record company-produced music videos. At its launch,
iTunes Store provided a section of free music videos in high quality compression to be watched via the iTunes application. More recently the iTunes Store has begun selling music videos for use on Apple's
iPod with video playback capability.
To further signify the change in direction towards Music Video airplay, MTV officially dropped the Music Television tagline on February 8, 2010 from their logo in response to their increased commitment to non-scripted reality programming and other youth-oriented entertainment rising in prominence on their live broadcast.
Vevo is a music video website launched by several major music publishers in December 2009.
 The videos on VEVO are syndicated to YouTube, with
Google and VEVO sharing the advertising revenue.
Official Lo-fi Internet music clips
Following the shift toward internet broadcasting and the rising popularity of user-generated video sites such as
YouTube around 2006, various
independent filmmakers began recording live sessions to present on the Web. Examples of this new way of creating and presenting a music video include
Vincent Moon's work with The Take-Away Shows; In the Van sessions, a similar platform;
 and the Dutch
3VOOR12, which puts out music videos recorded in elevators and other small,
guerrilla filmmaking type locations in a similar tradition called Behind.
 All of these swiftly recorded clips are made with minimal budgets and share similar aesthetics with the
lo-fi music movement of the early nineties. Offering freedom from the increasingly burdensome financial requirements of high-production movie-like clips, it began as the only method for little-known
indie music artists to present themselves to a wider audience, but increasingly this approach has been taken up by such major mainstream artists as
A lyric video is one in which the words to the song are the main element of the video. Lyric videos rose to prominence in the 2010s, with it becoming relatively easy for artists to disperse videos through websites such as
 Many do not even feature any visual related to the musician in question, but merely a background with the lyrics appearing over them as they are sung in the song.
 As such, they are often created with relative ease, and often act as a supplemental video to a more traditional music video. Despite its rise to prominence in the 2010s, the idea had still been used much earlier. The music video for
Fall On Me" interspersed the song's lyrics with abstract film footage. In 1987,
Prince released a video for his song "
Sign o' the Times". The video featured the song's words pulsing to the music presented along with abstract geometric shapes; an effect created by
 The following year, the video for the
Talking Heads single "
(Nothing But) Flowers" consisted of the song's lyrics being set to various visuals. In 1990
George Michael released "Praying For Time" as a lyric video. He had refused to make a traditional music video, so his label released a simple clip that displayed the song's lyrics on a black screen.