Music

Music
Music lesson Staatliche Antikensammlungen 2421.jpg
A painting on an ancient Greek vase depicts a music lesson (c. 510 BC).
MediumSound, silence, time
Originating cultureVarious
Originating eraPaleolithic era

Music is an art form and cultural activity whose medium is sound organized in time. The common elements of music are pitch (which governs melody and harmony), rhythm (and its associated concepts tempo, meter, and articulation), dynamics (loudness and softness), and the sonic qualities of timbre and texture (which are sometimes termed the "color" of a musical sound). Different styles or types of music may emphasize, de-emphasize or omit some of these elements. Music is performed with a vast range of instruments and vocal techniques ranging from singing to rapping; there are solely instrumental pieces, solely vocal pieces (such as songs without instrumental accompaniment) and pieces that combine singing and instruments. The word derives from Greek μουσική (mousike; "art of the Muses").[1]See glossary of musical terminology.

In its most general form, the activities describing music as an art form or cultural activity include the creation of works of music (songs, tunes, symphonies, and so on), the criticism of music, the study of the history of music, and the aesthetic examination of music. Ancient Greek and Indian philosophers defined music as tones ordered horizontally as melodies and vertically as harmonies. Common sayings such as "the harmony of the spheres" and "it is music to my ears" point to the notion that music is often ordered and pleasant to listen to. However, 20th-century composer John Cage thought that any sound can be music, saying, for example, "There is no noise, only sound."[2]

The creation, performance, significance, and even the definition of music vary according to culture and social context. Indeed, throughout history, some new forms or styles of music have been criticized as "not being music", including Beethoven's Grosse Fuge string quartet in 1825,[3] early jazz in the beginning of the 1900s[4] and hardcore punk in the 1980s.[5] There are many types of music, including popular music, traditional music, art music, music written for religious ceremonies and work songs such as chanteys. Music ranges from strictly organized compositions–such as Classical music symphonies from the 1700s and 1800s, through to spontaneously played improvisational music such as jazz, and avant-garde styles of chance-based contemporary music from the 20th and 21st centuries.

Music can be divided into genres (e.g., country music) and genres can be further divided into subgenres (e.g., country blues and pop country are two of the many country subgenres), although the dividing lines and relationships between music genres are often subtle, sometimes open to personal interpretation, and occasionally controversial. For example, it can be hard to draw the line between some early 1980s hard rock and heavy metal. Within the arts, music may be classified as a performing art, a fine art or as an auditory art. Music may be played or sung and heard live at a rock concert or orchestra performance, heard live as part of a dramatic work (a music theater show or opera), or it may be recorded and listened to on a radio, MP3 player, CD player, smartphone or as film score or TV show.

In many cultures, music is an important part of people's way of life, as it plays a key role in religious rituals, rite of passage ceremonies (e.g., graduation and marriage), social activities (e.g., dancing) and cultural activities ranging from amateur karaoke singing to playing in an amateur funk band or singing in a community choir. People may make music as a hobby, like a teen playing cello in a youth orchestra, or work as a professional musician or singer. The music industry includes the individuals who create new songs and musical pieces (such as songwriters and composers), individuals who perform music (which include orchestra, jazz band and rock band musicians, singers and conductors), individuals who record music (music producers and sound engineers), individuals who organize concert tours, and individuals who sell recordings and sheet music and scores to customers.

Etymology

In Greek mythology, the nine Muses were the inspiration for many creative endeavors, including the arts.

The word derives from Greek μουσική (mousike; "art of the Muses").[1] In Greek mythology, the nine Muses were the goddesses who inspired literature, science, and the arts and who were the source of the knowledge embodied in the poetry, song-lyrics, and myths in the Greek culture. According to the Online Etymological Dictionary, the term "music" is derived from "mid-13c., musike, from Old French musique (12c.) and directly from Latin musica "the art of music," also including poetry (also [the] source of Spanish musica, Italian musica, Old High German mosica, German Musik, Dutch muziek, Danish musik)." This is derived from the "...Greek mousike (techne) "(art) of the Muses," from fem. of mousikos "pertaining to the Muses," from Mousa "Muse" (see muse (n.)). Modern spelling [dates] from [the] 1630s. In classical Greece, [the term "music" refers to] any art in which the Muses presided, but especially music and lyric poetry."[6]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Musiek
Alemannisch: Musik
አማርኛ: ሙዚቃ
Ænglisc: Drēam
العربية: موسيقى
aragonés: Musica
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܙܡܪܘܬܐ
armãneashti: Muzicâ
arpetan: Musica
asturianu: Música
Avañe'ẽ: Atõi
Aymar aru: Jaylliphust'a
azərbaycanca: Musiqi
تۆرکجه: موسیقی
bamanankan: Fɔlikan
বাংলা: সঙ্গীত
Bân-lâm-gú: Im-ga̍k
Basa Banyumasan: Musik
башҡортса: Музыка
беларуская: Музыка
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Музыка
भोजपुरी: संगीत
български: Музика
Boarisch: Musi
བོད་ཡིག: རོལ་དབྱངས།
bosanski: Muzika
brezhoneg: Sonerezh
буряад: Хүгжэм
català: Música
Чӑвашла: Мусăк
Cebuano: Musika
čeština: Hudba
chiShona: Mimhanzi
corsu: Musica
Cymraeg: Cerddoriaeth
dansk: Musik
Deutsch: Musik
ދިވެހިބަސް: ސަންގީތު
eesti: Muusika
Ελληνικά: Μουσική
español: Música
Esperanto: Muziko
estremeñu: Música
euskara: Musika
فارسی: موسیقی
Fiji Hindi: Music
føroyskt: Tónleikur
français: Musique
Frysk: Muzyk
furlan: Musiche
Gaeilge: Ceol
Gaelg: Kiaull
Gàidhlig: Ceòl
galego: Música
贛語: 音樂
ગુજરાતી: સંગીત
𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌹𐍃𐌺: 𐍃𐌰𐌲𐌲𐍅𐌴𐌹𐍃
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: संगीत
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Yîm-ngo̍k
한국어: 음악
Hausa: Kiɗa
हिन्दी: संगीत
hrvatski: Glazba
Ido: Muziko
Ilokano: Musika
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: এলা
Bahasa Indonesia: Musik
interlingua: Musica
Interlingue: Música
Iñupiak: Atuutit
Ирон: Музыкæ
isiXhosa: Umculo
isiZulu: Umculo
íslenska: Tónlist
italiano: Musica
עברית: מוזיקה
Basa Jawa: Musik
kalaallisut: Nipilersorneq
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಸಂಗೀತ
къарачай-малкъар: Музыка
ქართული: მუსიკა
कॉशुर / کٲشُر: موسیٖقی
kaszëbsczi: Mùzyka
қазақша: Музыка
kernowek: Ylow
Kiswahili: Muziki
Kreyòl ayisyen: Mizik
kurdî: Muzîk
Кыргызча: Музыка
Ladino: Muzika
лакку: Музыка
ລາວ: ດົນຕີ
Latina: Musica
latviešu: Mūzika
Lëtzebuergesch: Musek
lietuvių: Muzika
Ligure: Muxica
Limburgs: Muziek
lingála: Mizíki
la .lojban.: zgike
lumbaart: Müsega
magyar: Zene
македонски: Музика
Malagasy: Mozika
മലയാളം: സംഗീതം
Malti: Mużika
मराठी: संगीत
მარგალური: მუსიკა
مصرى: مزيكا
مازِرونی: ساز
Bahasa Melayu: Muzik
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Ĭng-ngŏk
Mirandés: Música
монгол: Хөгжим
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ဂီတ
Nederlands: Muziek
Nedersaksies: Meziek
नेपाली: सङ्गीत
नेपाल भाषा: संगीत
日本語: 音楽
Napulitano: Múseca
нохчийн: Эшар
Nordfriisk: Musiik
Norfuk / Pitkern: Myuusik
norsk: Musikk
norsk nynorsk: Musikk
Nouormand: Mûsique
Novial: Musike
occitan: Musica
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ସଂଗୀତ
Oromoo: Muuziqaa
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Musiqa
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਸੰਗੀਤ
Pangasinan: Musik
پنجابی: موسیقی
Papiamentu: Musika
پښتو: سندارا
Patois: Myuuzik
ភាសាខ្មែរ: តន្ត្រី
Piemontèis: Mùsica
Plattdüütsch: Musik
polski: Muzyka
Ποντιακά: Μουσική
português: Música
Ripoarisch: Musick
română: Muzică
Runa Simi: Taki kapchiy
русиньскый: Музика
русский: Музыка
саха тыла: Музыка
Gagana Samoa: Mūsika
संस्कृतम्: सङ्गीतम्
Scots: Muisic
Seeltersk: Musik
shqip: Muzika
sicilianu: Mùsica
Simple English: Music
slovenčina: Hudba
slovenščina: Glasba
ślůnski: Muzyka
Soomaaliga: Muusig
کوردی: مۆسیقا
српски / srpski: Музика
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Muzika
Basa Sunda: Musik
suomi: Musiikki
svenska: Musik
Tagalog: Tugtugin
தமிழ்: இசை
Taqbaylit: Aẓawan
татарча/tatarça: Музыка
tetun: Muzika
ไทย: ดนตรี
тоҷикӣ: Мусиқӣ
ᏣᎳᎩ: ᏗᎧᏃᎩᏛ
Türkçe: Müzik
українська: Музика
اردو: موسیقی
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: مۇزىكا
Vahcuengh: Yinhyoz
vèneto: Mùxega
vepsän kel’: Muzik
Tiếng Việt: Âm nhạc
Võro: Muusiga
walon: Muzike
Winaray: Musika
Wolof: Way
吴语: 音乐
Xitsonga: Vunanga
ייִדיש: מוזיק
Yorùbá: Orin
粵語: 音樂
Zazaki: Muzik
Zeêuws: Muziek
žemaitėška: Mozėka
中文: 音乐
Kabɩyɛ: Minziiki
Lingua Franca Nova: Musica