Murder

The assassination of Agamemnon, an illustration from Stories from the Greek Tragedians by Alfred Church, 1897.

Murder is the unlawful killing of another human without justification or valid excuse, especially the unlawful killing of another human being with malice aforethought.[1][2][3] This state of mind may, depending upon the jurisdiction, distinguish murder from other forms of unlawful homicide, such as manslaughter. Manslaughter is a killing committed in the absence of malice, brought about by reasonable provocation, or diminished capacity. Involuntary manslaughter, where it is recognized, is a killing that lacks all but the most attenuated guilty intent, recklessness.

Most societies consider murder to be an extremely serious crime, and thus believe that the person charged should receive harsh punishments for the purposes of retribution, deterrence, rehabilitation, or incapacitation. In most countries, a person convicted of murder generally faces a long-term prison sentence, possibly a life sentence; and in a few, the death penalty may be imposed.[4]

Etymology

The modern English word "murder" descends from the Proto-Indo-European "mrtró" which meant "to die".[5] The Middle English mordre is a noun from Anglo-Saxon morðor and Old French murdre. Middle English mordre is a verb from Anglo-Saxon myrdrian and the Middle English noun.[6]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Moord
العربية: قتل عمد
asturianu: Asesinatu
Bân-lâm-gú: Bô͘-sat
беларуская: Забойства
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Забойства
भोजपुरी: हत्या
български: Убийство
català: Assassinat
čeština: Vražda
chiShona: Mhondi
Cymraeg: Llofruddiaeth
dansk: Drab
Deutsch: Mord
dolnoserbski: Mordarstwo
eesti: Mõrv
Ελληνικά: Δολοφονία
español: Asesinato
Esperanto: Murdo
euskara: Erailketa
فارسی: قتل عمد
français: Meurtre
Frysk: Moard
Gaeilge: Dúnmharú
galego: Asasinato
한국어: 모살
հայերեն: Սպանություն
हिन्दी: हत्या
Bahasa Indonesia: Pembunuhan
interlingua: Assassinato
עברית: רצח
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಕೊಲೆ
ქართული: მკვლელობა
latviešu: Slepkavība
lietuvių: Nužudymas
magyar: Emberölés
македонски: Убиство со умисла
മലയാളം: കൊലപാതകം
Bahasa Melayu: Pembunuhan
Nederlands: Moord
नेपाली: हत्या
नेपाल भाषा: हत्या
日本語: 殺人罪
нохчийн: Дер
norsk: Drap
norsk nynorsk: Drap
occitan: Murtre
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਕਤਲ
Piemontèis: Sassinament
português: Assassínio
română: Crimă
Runa Simi: Runa sipiy
русский: Убийство
Scots: Murther
sicilianu: Ammazzatina
Simple English: Murder
سنڌي: قتل
slovenčina: Vražda
slovenščina: Umor
српски / srpski: Тешко убиство
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Ubistvo
suomi: Murha
svenska: Mord
தமிழ்: கொலை
తెలుగు: హత్య
Türkçe: Cinayet
українська: Умисне вбивство
اردو: قتل
Tiếng Việt: Giết người
walon: Moude
中文: 謀殺