Mughal Empire

Mughal Empire

گورکانیان  (Persian)
Gūrkāniyān
مغلیہ سلطنت  (Urdu)
Mug̱liyah Salṭanat
  • 1526–1540
  • 1555–1857
Mughal
The empire at its greatest extent, in ca. 1700
Capital
Common languages
Religion
GovernmentAbsolute monarchy,
unitary state with federal structure,
centralized autarchy[3]
Emperor[4] 
• 1526–1530
Babur (first)
• 1837–1857
Bahadur Shah II (last)
Historical eraEarly modern
21 April 1526
• Empire interrupted by Sur Empire
1540–1555
1680-1707
• Death of Aurangzeb
3 March 1707
24 February 1739
1746–1763
21 September 1857
Area
1690[5][6]4,000,000 km2 (1,500,000 sq mi)
Population
• 1700[7]
158,400,000
CurrencyRupee, Taka, dam[8]
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Timurid Empire
Delhi Sultanate
Rajput states
Chero dynasty
Bengal Sultanate
Deccan sultanates
Maratha Empire
Bengal Subah
Durrani Empire
Sikh Empire
Company rule in India
British Raj

The Mughal Empire (Persian: گورکانیان‎, romanizedGūrkāniyān;[9] Urdu: مغلیہ سلطنت‎, romanizedMughliyah Saltanat)[10][2] or Mogul Empire[11] was an empire in the Indian subcontinent, founded in 1526. It was established and ruled by the Timurid dynasty, with Turco-Mongol Chagatai roots from Central Asia, claiming direct descent from both Genghis Khan (through his son Chagatai Khan) and Timur,[12][13][14] and with significant Indian Rajput and Persian ancestry through marriage alliances;[15][16] the first two Mughal emperors had both parents of Central Asian ancestry, while successive emperors were of predominantly Persian and Rajput ancestry.[17] The dynasty was Indo-Persian in culture,[18] combining Persianate culture[11][19] with local Indian cultural influences[18] visible in its court culture and administrative customs.[20]

The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the victory by its founder Babur over Ibrahim Lodi, the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, in the First Battle of Panipat (1526). During the reign of Humayun, the successor of Babur, the empire was briefly interrupted by the Sur Empire established by Sher Shah Suri. The "classic period" of the Mughal Empire began in 1556, with the ascension of Akbar to the throne. Some Rajput kingdoms continued to pose a significant threat to the Mughal dominance of northwestern India, but most of them were subdued by Akbar. All Mughal emperors were Muslims; Akbar, however, propounded a syncretic religion in the latter part of his life called Dīn-i Ilāhī, as recorded in historical books like Ain-i-Akbari and Dabistān-i Mazāhib.[21] The Mughal Empire did not try to intervene in native societies during most of its existence, rather co-opting and pacifying them through concilliatory administrative practices[22][23] and a syncretic, inclusive ruling elite,[24] leading to more systematic, centralized and uniform rule.[25] Traditional and newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Marathas, the Rajputs, the Pashtuns, the Hindu Jats and the Sikhs, gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience.[26][27][28][29]

Internal dissatisfaction arose due to the weakness of the empire's administrative and economic systems, leading to its break-up and declarations of independence of its former provinces by the Nawab of Bengal, the Nawab of Awadh, the Nizam of Hyderabad and other small states. In 1739, the Mughals were crushingly defeated in the Battle of Karnal by the forces of Nader Shah, the founder of the Afsharid dynasty in Persia, and Delhi was sacked and looted, drastically accelerating their decline. By the mid-18th century, the Marathas had routed Mughal armies and won over several Mughal provinces from the Punjab to Bengal.[30] During the following century Mughal power had become severely limited, and the last emperor, Bahadur Shah II, had authority over only the city of Shahjahanabad. Bahadur issued a firman supporting the Indian Rebellion of 1857. Consequent to the rebellion's defeat he was tried by the British East India Company for treason, imprisoned, and exiled to Rangoon.[31] The last remnants of the empire were formally taken over by the British, and the British Parliament passed the Government of India Act 1858 to enable the Crown formally to displace the rights of the East India Company and assume direct control of India in the form of the new British Raj.

At its height, the Mughal Empire stretched from today's modern Kabul, Afghanistan[32] in the west to Rakhine State, Myanmar[33] in the east, and from Kashmir[34] in the north to the Deccan Plateau[35] in the south, extending over nearly all of the Indian subcontinent.[7] It was the third largest empire in the Indian subcontinent (behind the Maurya Empire and the British Raj), spanning approximately four million square kilometers at its zenith,[6] 122% of the size of the modern Republic of India. The maximum expansion was reached during the reign of Aurangzeb, who ruled over more than 150 million subjects, nearly 25% of the world's population at the time.[36] The Mughal Empire also ushered in a period of proto-industrialization,[37] and around the 17th century, Mughal India became the world's largest economic and manufacturing power,[38] responsible for 25% of global industrial output until the 18th century.[39][40] The Mughal Empire is considered "India's last golden age"[41] and one of the three Islamic Gunpowder Empires (along with the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Iran).[42] The reign of Shah Jahan (1628–1658) represented the height of Mughal architecture, with famous monuments such as the Taj Mahal, Moti Masjid, Red Fort, Jama Masjid and Lahore Fort being constructed during his reign.

Name

Contemporaries referred to the empire founded by Babur as the Timurid empire,[43] which reflected the heritage of his dynasty, and this was the term preferred by the Mughals themselves.[44]

The Mughal designation for their own dynasty was Gurkani (Persian: گورکانیان‎, Gūrkāniyān, meaning "sons-in-law").[9] The use of Mughal derived from the Arabic and Persian corruption of Mongol, and it emphasised the Mongol origins of the Timurid dynasty.[42] The term gained currency during the 19th century, but remains disputed by Indologists.[45] Similar terms had been used to refer to the empire, including "Mogul" and "Moghul".[11][46] Nevertheless, Babur's ancestors were sharply distinguished from the classical Mongols insofar as they were oriented towards Persian rather than Turco-Mongol culture.[47]

Another name for the empire was Hindustan, which was documented in the Ain-i-Akbari, and which has been described as the closest to an official name for the empire.[48] In the west, the term "Mughal" was used for the emperor, and by extension, the empire as a whole.[49]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Mogolryk
asturianu: Imperiu mogol
Bân-lâm-gú: Mogul Tè-kok
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Імпэрыя Вялікіх Маголаў
भोजपुरी: मुगल राज
català: Imperi Mogol
dansk: Mogulriget
Deutsch: Mogulreich
español: Imperio mogol
Esperanto: Mogola Imperio
français: Empire moghol
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Mogul Ti-koet
한국어: 무굴 제국
Bahasa Indonesia: Kesultanan Mughal
íslenska: Mógúlveldið
italiano: Moghul
latviešu: Mogulu impērija
lietuvių: Mogolų imperija
Limburgs: Mughalriek
Bahasa Melayu: Empayar Mughal
Nederlands: Mogolrijk
नेपाल भाषा: मुगल साम्राज्य
日本語: ムガル帝国
norsk: Mogulriket
norsk nynorsk: Mogulriket
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Boburiylar davlati
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਮੁਗਲ ਸਲਤਨਤ
پنجابی: مغلیہ سلطنت
português: Império Mogol
română: Imperiul Mogul
Simple English: Mughal Empire
slovenčina: Mughali
slovenščina: Mogulski imperij
српски / srpski: Mogulsko carstvo
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Mogulsko Carstvo
svenska: Mogulriket
татарча/tatarça: Böyek Mogollar İmperiäse
Tiếng Việt: Đế quốc Mogul