Mountain range

The Himalayas, the highest mountain range on Earth, seen from space

A mountain range or hill range is a series of mountains or hills ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt is a group of mountain ranges with similarity in form, structure, and alignment that have arisen from the same cause, usually an orogeny.[1] Mountain ranges are formed by a variety of geological processes, but most of the significant ones on Earth are the result of plate tectonics. Mountain ranges are also found on many planetary mass objects in the Solar System and are likely a feature of most terrestrial planets.

Mountain ranges are usually segmented by highlands or mountain passes and valleys. Individual mountains within the same mountain range do not necessarily have the same geologic structure or petrology. They may be a mix of different orogenic expressions and terranes, for example thrust sheets, uplifted blocks, fold mountains, and volcanic landforms resulting in a variety of rock types.

Major ranges

An 1865 lithograph showing the High Tatras mountain range in Slovakia and Poland by Karel Kořistka appearing in a book by August Heinrich Petermann.

Most geologically young mountain ranges on the Earth's land surface are associated with either the Pacific Ring of Fire or the Alpide Belt. The Pacific Ring of Fire includes the Andes of South America, extends through the North American Cordillera along the Pacific Coast, the Aleutian Range, on through Kamchatka, Japan, Taiwan, the Philippines, Papua New Guinea, to New Zealand.[2] The Andes is 7,000 kilometres (4,350 mi) long and is often considered the world's longest mountain system.[3]

The Alpide belt includes Indonesia and southeast Asia, through the Himalaya, and ends in the Alps, Spain and Atlas Mountains.[4] The belt also includes other European and Asian mountain ranges. The Himalayas contain the highest mountains in the world, including Mount Everest, which is 8,848 metres (29,029 ft) high and traverses the border between China and Nepal.[5]

The Ocean Ridge, the world's longest mountain range (chain)

Mountain ranges outside these two systems include the Arctic Cordillera, the Urals, the Appalachians, the Scandinavian Mountains, the Great Dividing Range, the Altai Mountains and the Hijaz Mountains. If the definition of a mountain range is stretched to include underwater mountains, then the Ocean Ridges form the longest continuous mountain system on Earth, with a length of 65,000 kilometres (40,400 mi).[6]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Bergreeks
Alemannisch: Gebirge
العربية: سلسلة جبلية
aragonés: Cordelera
asturianu: Cordal
Avañe'ẽ: Yvytyrysýi
Aymar aru: Khunu qullu
Bân-lâm-gú: Soaⁿ-me̍h
башҡортса: Тау һырты
беларуская: Горны хрыбет
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Горны сьцяг
भोजपुरी: परबत माला
bosanski: Planinski lanac
català: Serralada
čeština: Pohoří
chiShona: Mandundu
dansk: Bjergkæde
Deutsch: Gebirge
eesti: Mäestik
Ελληνικά: Οροσειρά
español: Cordillera
Esperanto: Montara sistemo
euskara: Mendilerro
فارسی: رشته‌کوه
Frysk: Berchtme
Gaeilge: Sliabhraon
galego: Cordilleira
한국어: 산맥
हिन्दी: पर्वतमाला
hrvatski: Gorje
Ilokano: Kabambantayan
Bahasa Indonesia: Pegunungan
íslenska: Fjallgarður
italiano: Catena montuosa
עברית: רכס הרים
къарачай-малкъар: Тау тизгин
ქართული: ქედი
қазақша: Таулы үстірт
Kiswahili: Safu ya milima
kurdî: Rêzeçiya
Кыргызча: Кырка тоо
latviešu: Kalnu grēda
lietuvių: Kalnagūbris
la .lojban.: ma'arlinsi
magyar: Hegyvidékek
македонски: Планински венец
მარგალური: ქჷნდჷრი
Bahasa Melayu: Banjaran
日本語: 山脈
Nordfriisk: Beragkeed
norsk: Fjellkjede
norsk nynorsk: Fjellkjede
occitan: Massís
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਪਰਬਤ ਲੜੀ
پنجابی: پربت دھارا
português: Cordilheira
română: Lanț montan
Runa Simi: Walla
русиньскый: Горы
саха тыла: Сис (география)
shqip: Vargmali
Simple English: Mountain range
slovenčina: Pohorie
slovenščina: Gorovje
کوردی: زنجیرەچیا
српски / srpski: Планински масив
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Planinski masiv
suomi: Vuoristo
svenska: Bergskedja
Tagalog: Bulubundukin
Türkçe: Sıradağ
українська: Гірський хребет
Tiếng Việt: Dãy núi
West-Vlams: Gebergte
Winaray: Kabubkiran
ייִדיש: בארג קייט
粵語: 山脈
中文: 山脉