Mount Etna

Mount Etna
Mt Etna and Catania1.jpg
Etna with the city of Catania in the foreground
Highest point
Elevation3,326 m (10,912 ft) (varies)[1]
Prominence3,326 m (10,912 ft) 
Ranked 59th
Isolation999 kilometres (621 mi)
Coordinates37°45.3′N 14°59.7′E / 37°45.3′N 14°59.7′E / 37.7550; 14.9950
Age of rock350,000 – 500,000 years
Mountain typeStratovolcano
Last eruption2014 to 2019 (Ongoing)[2]
Inscription2013 (37th Session)
Area19,237 ha
Buffer zone26,220 ha

Mount Etna, or Etna (Italian: Etna [ˈɛtna] or Mongibello [mondʒiˈbɛllo]; Sicilian: Mungibeddu [mʊndʒɪbˈbɛɖɖʊ] or â Muntagna; Latin: Aetna; Greek: Αίτνα), is an active stratovolcano on the east coast of Sicily, Italy, in the Metropolitan City of Catania, between the cities of Messina and Catania. It lies above the convergent plate margin between the African Plate and the Eurasian Plate. It is the highest active volcano in Europe outside the Caucasus.[3] It is currently 3,326 m (10,912 ft) high, though this varies with summit eruptions. It is the highest peak in Italy south of the Alps. Etna covers an area of 1,190 km2 (459 sq mi) with a basal circumference of 140 km (87 miles). This makes it by far the largest of the three active volcanoes in Italy, being about two and a half times the height of the next largest, Mount Vesuvius. Only Mount Teide on Tenerife in the Canary Islands surpasses it in the whole of the European–North-African region west of the Black Sea.[4] In Greek Mythology, the deadly monster Typhon was trapped under this mountain by Zeus, the god of the sky and thunder and king of gods, and the forges of Hephaestus were said also to be underneath it.[5]

Mount Etna is one of the world's most active volcanoes and is in an almost constant state of activity. The fertile volcanic soils support extensive agriculture, with vineyards and orchards spread across the lower slopes of the mountain and the broad Plain of Catania to the south. Due to its history of recent activity and nearby population, Mount Etna has been designated a Decade Volcano by the United Nations.[6] In June 2013, it was added to the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.[7]

Relief map
Etna seen behind the Rocca di Novara, Peloritani mountains

Etymology and folklore

The word Etna is from the Greek αἴθω (aithō), meaning "I burn", through an iotacist pronunciation.[8] In Classical Greek, it is called Αἴτνη (Aítnē),[9] a name given also to Catania and the city originally known as Inessa. In Latin it is called Aetna. In Arabic, it was called جبل النار Jabal al-Nār (the Mountain of Fire).[10]

It is also known as Mungibeddu in Sicilian and Mongibello or Montebello in Italian (the Italian word literally means "beautiful mountain"). According to another hypothesis, the term Mongibello comes from the Latin Mulciber (qui ignem mulcet, "who placates the fire"), one of the Latin names of the Roman god Vulcan.[citation needed] Another theory is that Mongibello came from the Italian word monte plus the Arabic word jabal, both meaning "mountain."

Today, the name Mongibello is used for the area of Mount Etna containing the two central craters, and the craters located southeast and northeast of the volcanic cone.

The name Mongibel is found in Arthurian Romance, as the name of the otherworld castle (or realm) of Morgan le Fay and her half-brother, King Arthur, localised at Etna, according to traditions concerning them derived from the stories told by the Breton conteurs who accompanied the Norman occupiers of Sicily. What were originally Welsh conceptions concerning a dwarf king of a paradisal, Celtic underworld became attached to the quasi-historic figure of Arthur as "Ruler of the Antipodes" and were then transplanted into a Sicilian milieu, by Bretons impressed by the already otherworldly associations of the great, volcanic mountain of their new home. Mediaevalist Roger Sherman Loomis quotes passages from the works of Gervase of Tilbury and Caesarius of Heisterbach (dating from the late twelfth century) featuring accounts of Arthur's returning of a lost horse which had strayed into his subterranean kingdom beneath Etna. Caesarius quotes as his authority for the story a certain canon Godescalcus of Bonn, who considered it a matter of historical fact of the time of Emperor Henry's conquest of Sicily circa 1194. Caesarius employs in his account the Latin phrase in monte Gyber ("within Etna") to describe the location of Arthur's kingdom.[11][12][13]

The Fada de Gibel of the Castle of Gibaldar (Fairy of Etna) appears in Jaufre, the only surviving Arthurian romance in the Occitan language, the composition of which is dated to between 1180 and 1230. However, in Jaufre, while it is clear from her name that the fairy queen in question is Morgan le Fay, the rich underworld queendom of which she is the mistress is accessed, not through a fiery grotto on the slopes of Etna, but through a 'fountain' (i.e., a spring) – a circumstance more in keeping with Morgan's original watery, rather than fiery, associations, before her incorporation into the folklore of Sicily.[14] For another Sicilian conception of the fairy realm or castle of Morgan le Fay – see Fata Morgana (mirage) re. an optical phenomenon common in the Strait of Messina.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Berg Etna
Alemannisch: Ätna
Ænglisc: Eþna
العربية: جبل إتنا
asturianu: Etna
azərbaycanca: Etna
беларуская: Этна
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Этна
भोजपुरी: माउंट एटना
български: Етна
bosanski: Etna
brezhoneg: Etna
català: Etna
Чӑвашла: Этна
Cebuano: Monte Etna
čeština: Etna
Cymraeg: Etna
dansk: Etna
Deutsch: Ätna
eesti: Etna
Ελληνικά: Αίτνα
español: Etna
Esperanto: Etna
euskara: Etna
فارسی: اتنا
føroyskt: Etna
français: Etna
furlan: Etna
Gaeilge: Sliabh Etna
galego: Monte Etna
한국어: 에트나산
հայերեն: Էտնա
hornjoserbsce: Etna
hrvatski: Etna
Ido: Etna
Bahasa Indonesia: Etna
interlingua: Monte Etna
íslenska: Etna
italiano: Etna
עברית: אטנה
ქართული: ეტნა
қазақша: Этна
Kiswahili: Etna
Kreyòl ayisyen: Etna
Latina: Aetna mons
latviešu: Etna
Lëtzebuergesch: Etna
lietuvių: Etna
magyar: Etna
македонски: Етна
Malti: Etna
मराठी: एटना
მარგალური: ეტნა
Bahasa Melayu: Gunung Etna
Nederlands: Etna (vulkaan)
日本語: エトナ火山
Napulitano: Etna
нохчийн: Этна
norsk: Etna
norsk nynorsk: Etna
occitan: Ètna
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Etna
پنجابی: ایٹنا
پښتو: آتینا
Piemontèis: Etna
polski: Etna
português: Etna
română: Etna
русиньскый: Етна
русский: Этна
sardu: Etna
Scots: Moont Etna
Seeltersk: Ätna
shqip: Etna
sicilianu: Etna (vurcanu)
Simple English: Mount Etna
slovenčina: Etna
slovenščina: Etna
српски / srpski: Етна
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Etna
suomi: Etna
svenska: Etna
удмурт: Этна
українська: Етна
Tiếng Việt: Núi Etna
Winaray: Bukid Etna
粵語: 屹立火山