Morphology (linguistics)

In linguistics, morphology (i/[1]) is the study of words, how they are formed, and their relationship to other words in the same language.[2][3] It analyzes the structure of words and parts of words, such as stems, root words, prefixes, and suffixes. Morphology also looks at parts of speech, intonation and stress, and the ways context can change a word's pronunciation and meaning. Morphology differs from morphological typology, which is the classification of languages based on their use of words,[4] and lexicology, which is the study of words and how they make up a language's vocabulary.[5]

While words, along with clitics, are generally accepted as being the smallest units of syntax, in most languages, if not all, many words can be related to other words by rules that collectively describe the grammar for that language. For example, English speakers recognize that the words dog and dogs are closely related, differentiated only by the plurality morpheme "-s", only found bound to noun phrases. Speakers of English, a fusional language, recognize these relations from their innate knowledge of English's rules of word formation. They infer intuitively that dog is to dogs as cat is to cats; and, in similar fashion, dog is to dog catcher as dish is to dishwasher. By contrast, Classical Chinese has very little morphology, using almost exclusively unbound morphemes ("free" morphemes) and depending on word order to convey meaning. (Most words in modern Standard Chinese ["Mandarin"], however, are compounds and most roots are bound.) These are understood as grammars that represent the morphology of the language. The rules understood by a speaker reflect specific patterns or regularities in the way words are formed from smaller units in the language they are using, and how those smaller units interact in speech. In this way, morphology is the branch of linguistics that studies patterns of word formation within and across languages and attempts to formulate rules that model the knowledge of the speakers of those languages.

Phonological and orthographic modifications between a base word and its origin may be partial to literacy skills. Studies have indicated that the presence of modification in phonology and orthography makes morphologically complex words harder to understand and that the absence of modification between a base word and its origin makes morphologically complex words easier to understand. Morphologically complex words are easier to comprehend when they include a base word.[6]

Polysynthetic languages, such as Chukchi, have words composed of many morphemes. The Chukchi word "təmeyŋəlevtpəγtərkən", for example, meaning "I have a fierce headache", is composed of eight morphemes t-ə-meyŋ-ə-levt-pəγt-ə-rkən that may be glossed. The morphology of such languages allows for each consonant and vowel to be understood as morphemes, while the grammar of the language indicates the usage and understanding of each morpheme.

The discipline that deals specifically with the sound changes occurring within morphemes is morphophonology.

History

The history of morphological analysis dates back to the ancient Indian linguist Pāṇini, who formulated the 3,959 rules of Sanskrit morphology in the text Aṣṭādhyāyī by using a constituency grammar. The Greco-Roman grammatical tradition also engaged in morphological analysis. Studies in Arabic morphology, conducted by Marāḥ al-arwāḥ and Aḥmad b. ‘alī Mas‘ūd, date back to at least 1200 CE.[7]

The linguistic term "morphology" was coined by August Schleicher in 1859.[a][8]

Other Languages
العربية: علم التصريف
беларуская: Марфалогія мовы
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Марфалёгія (мовазнаўства)
brezhoneg: Morfologiezh
čeština: Tvarosloví
فارسی: صرف
Frysk: Morfology
한국어: 형태론
हिन्दी: पदविज्ञान
hornjoserbsce: Morfologija
Bahasa Indonesia: Morfologi (linguistik)
íslenska: Orðhlutafræði
Kiswahili: Mofolojia
Кыргызча: Морфология
Limburgs: Morfologie
Lingua Franca Nova: Morfolojia
la .lojban.: rafske
Bahasa Melayu: Morfologi (linguistik)
日本語: 形態論
norsk nynorsk: Morfologi
Novial: Morfologia
олык марий: Мутлончыш
پښتو: گړپوهنه
Ποντιακά: Μορφολογία
rumantsch: Morfologia
Runa Simi: Rimana yachay
Simple English: Morphology (linguistics)
slovenčina: Tvaroslovie
slovenščina: Oblikoslovje
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Morfologija (lingvistika)
suomi: Morfologia
Türkçe: Biçimbilim
粵語: 構詞學
žemaitėška: Muorfuoluogėjė
中文: 词法学