Moravia

Moravia
Morava
Historical land
The town of Mikulov
The town of Mikulov
Banner of arms of Moravia.svg
Flag
Moravia.svg
Coat of arms
Anthem: Various
Predominantly "Czech: Jsem Moravan" or "Moravo, Moravo"[1]

CZ-cleneni-Morava-wl.png
Moravia (green) in relation to the current regions of the Czech Republic
Location of Moravia in the European Union
Location of Moravia in the European Union
Coordinates: 49°30′N 17°00′E / 49°30′N 17°00′E / 49.5; 17UTC+2 (CEST)

Moravia (-/ -RAH-, moh-;[7] Czech: Morava; German: About this soundMähren ; Polish: Morawy; Latin: Moravia) is a historical country in the Czech Republic (forming its eastern part) and one of the historical Czech lands, together with Bohemia and Czech Silesia. The medieval and early modern Margraviate of Moravia was a crown land of the Lands of the Bohemian Crown (from 1348 to 1918), an imperial state of the Holy Roman Empire (1004 to 1806), later a crown land of the Austrian Empire (1804 to 1867) and briefly also one of 17 former crown lands of the Cisleithanian part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire from 1867 to 1918. During the early 20th century, Moravia was one of the five lands of Czechoslovakia from 1918 to 1928; it was then merged with Czech Silesia, and eventually dissolved by abolition of the land system in 1949.

Moravia has an area of over 22,000 km2[8] and about 3 million inhabitants, which is roughly 2/7 or 30% of the whole Czech Republic. The statistics from 1921 states, that the whole area of Moravia including the enclaves in Silesia covers 22,623.41 km2.[9][10] The people are historically named Moravians, a subgroup of Czechs (as understood by Czechs). The land takes its name from the Morava river, which rises in the northern tip of the region and flows southward to the opposite end, being its major stream. Moravia's largest city and historical capital is Brno. Before being sacked by the Swedish army during the Thirty Years' War, Olomouc was another capital.[6]

Though officially abolished by an administrative reform in 1949, Moravia is still commonly acknowledged as a specific land in the Czech Republic. Moravian people are considerably aware of their Moravian identity and there is some rivalry between them and the Czechs from Bohemia.[11][12]

Moravian Banner of Arms[13][14]

Geography

Rolling hills of Králický Sněžník from Horní Morava, left Bohemian border
Šance, part of the Moravian-Silesian Beskids
Mohelno steppe in autumn

Moravia occupies most of the eastern part of the Czech Republic. Moravian territory is naturally strongly determined, in fact, as the Morava river basin, with strong effect of mountains in the west (de facto main European continental divide) and partly in the east, where all the rivers rise.

Moravia occupies an exceptional position in Central Europe. All the highlands in the west and east of this part of Europe run west-east, and therefore form a kind of filter, making north-south or south north movement more difficult. Only Moravia with the depression of the westernmost Subcarpathia, 14–40 kilometers (8.7–24.9 mi) wide, between the Bohemian Massif and the Outer Western Carpathians (gripping the meridian at a constant angle of 30°), provides a comfortable connection between the Danubian and Polish regions, and this area is thus of great importance in terms of the possible migration routes of large mammals[15] – both as regards periodically recurring seasonal migrations triggered by climatic oscillations in the prehistory, when permanent settlement started.

Moravia borders Bohemia in the west, Lower Austria in the south(west), Slovakia in the southeast, Poland very shortly in the north, and Czech Silesia in the northeast. Its natural boundary is formed by the Sudetes mountains in the north, the Carpathians in the east and the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands in the west (the border runs from Králický Sněžník in the north, over Suchý vrch, across Upper Svratka Highlands and Javořice Highlands to tripoint nearby Slavonice in the south). The Thaya river meanders along the border with Austria and the tripoint of Moravia, Austria and Slovakia is at the confluence of the Thaya and Morava rivers. The northeast border with Silesia runs partly along the Moravice, Oder and Ostravice rivers. Between 1782–1850, Moravia (also thus known as Moravia-Silesia) also included a small portion of the former province of Silesia – the Austrian Silesia (when Frederick the Great annexed most of ancient Silesia (the land of upper and middle Oder river) to Prussia, Silesia's southernmost part remained with the Habsburgs).

Today Moravia including the South Moravian Region,[16] the Zlín Region, vast majority of the Olomouc Region, southeastern half of the Vysočina Region and parts of the Moravian-Silesian, Pardubice and South Bohemian regions.

Geologically, Moravia covers a transitive area[clarification needed] between the Bohemian Massif and the Carpathians (from (north)west to southeast), and between the Danube basin and the North European Plain (from south to northeast). Its core geomorphological features are three wide valleys, namely the Dyje-Svratka Valley (Dyjsko-svratecký úval), the Upper Morava Valley (Hornomoravský úval) and the Lower Morava Valley (Dolnomoravský úval). The first two form the westernmost part of the Subcarpathia, the last is the northernmost part of the Vienna Basin. The valleys surround the low range of Central Moravian Carpathians. The highest mountains of Moravia are situated on its northern border in Hrubý Jeseník, the highest peak is Praděd (1491 m). Second highest is the massive of Králický Sněžník (1424  m) the third are the Moravian-Silesian Beskids at the very east, with Smrk (1278 m), and then south from here Javorníky (1072). The White Carpathians along the southeastern border rise up to 970 m at Velká Javořina. The spacious, but moderate Bohemian-Moravian Highlands on the west reach 837 m at Javořice.

The fluvial system of Moravia is very cohesive, as the region border is similar to the watershed of the Morava river, and thus almost the entire area is drained exclusively by a single stream. Morava's far biggest tributaries are Thaya (Dyje) from the right (or west) and Bečva (east). Morava and Thaya meet at the southernmost and lowest (148 m) point of Moravia. Small peripheral parts of Moravia belong to the catchment area of Elbe, Váh and especially Oder (the northeast). The watershed line running along Moravia's border from west to north and east is part of the European Watershed. For centuries, there has been plans to build a waterway across Moravia to join the Danube and Oder river systems, using the natural route through the Moravian Gate.[17][18]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Morawië
Alemannisch: Mähren
العربية: مورافيا
aragonés: Moravia
asturianu: Moravia
azərbaycanca: Moraviya
беларуская: Маравія
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Маравія
български: Моравия
Boarisch: Mährn
brezhoneg: Moravia
català: Moràvia
čeština: Morava
Cymraeg: Morafia
dansk: Mähren
Deutsch: Mähren
dolnoserbski: Morawa
eesti: Morava
Ελληνικά: Μοραβία
español: Moravia
Esperanto: Moravio
euskara: Moravia
فارسی: موراویا
français: Moravie
Frysk: Moraavje
Gaeilge: An Mhoráiv
Gàidhlig: Morabhia
galego: Moravia
한국어: 모라바
hornjoserbsce: Morawa
hrvatski: Moravska
Ido: Moravia
Bahasa Indonesia: Moravia
Ирон: Морави
italiano: Moravia
עברית: מוראביה
ქართული: მორავია
Kiswahili: Moravia
kurdî: Moravya
Кыргызча: Моравия
latviešu: Morāvija
lietuvių: Moravija
lumbaart: Muravia
magyar: Morvaország
македонски: Моравија
Bahasa Melayu: Moravia
Nederlands: Moravië (regio)
日本語: モラヴィア
нохчийн: Морави
norsk: Mähren
norsk nynorsk: Mähren
occitan: Moràvia
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Moraviya
پنجابی: موراویا
Picard: Moravie
polski: Morawy
português: Morávia
română: Moravia
Runa Simi: Murawya
русский: Моравия
Scots: Moravie
Simple English: Moravia
slovenčina: Morava (región)
slovenščina: Moravska
ślůnski: Morawijo
српски / srpski: Moravska
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Moravska
suomi: Määri
svenska: Mähren
Tagalog: Morabya
Türkçe: Moravya
українська: Моравія
اردو: موراویا
vèneto: Moravia
Tiếng Việt: Morava
Winaray: Moravia
ייִדיש: מעהרן
中文: 摩拉維亞