In general, morae are formed as follows:
syllable onset (the first
consonant or consonants of the syllable) does not represent any mora.
syllable nucleus represents one mora in the case of a short vowel, and two morae in the case of a long vowel or
diphthong. Consonants serving as syllable nuclei also represent one mora if short and two if long. (
Slovak is an example of a language that has both long and short consonantal nuclei.)
- In some languages (for example,
coda represents one mora, and in others (for example,
Irish) it does not. In
English, the codas of stressed syllables represent a mora (thus, the word cat is bimoraic), but for unstressed syllables it is not clear whether this is true (the second syllable of the word rabbit might be monomoraic).
- In some languages, a syllable with a long vowel or diphthong in the nucleus and one or more consonants in the coda is said to be trimoraic (see
In general, monomoraic syllables are called "light syllables", bimoraic syllables are called "heavy syllables", and trimoraic syllables (in languages that have them) are called "superheavy syllables". Some languages, such as
Old English and present-day English, can have syllables with up to four morae.
prosodic stress system in which moraically heavy syllables are assigned stress is said to have the property of quantity sensitivity.