) and the moons Iapetus, Titan, Dione, Hyperion, and Rhea viewed through a 12.5-inch telescope
Before the advent of
telescopic photography, eight moons of Saturn were discovered by direct observation using
optical telescopes. Saturn's largest moon,
Titan, was discovered in 1655 by
Christiaan Huygens using a 57-millimeter (2.2 in)
 on a
refracting telescope of his own design.
Iapetus (the "
Sidera Lodoicea") were discovered between 1671 and 1684 by
Giovanni Domenico Cassini.
Enceladus were discovered in 1789 by
Hyperion was discovered in 1848 by
The use of
long-exposure photographic plates made possible the discovery of additional moons. The first to be discovered in this manner,
Phoebe, was found in 1899 by
 In 1966 the tenth satellite of Saturn was discovered by
Audouin Dollfus, when the rings were observed edge-on near an
 It was later named
Janus. A few years later it was realized that all observations of 1966 could only be explained if another satellite had been present and that it had an orbit similar to that of Janus.
 This object is now known as
Epimetheus, the eleventh moon of Saturn. It shares the same orbit with Janus—the only known example of
co-orbitals in the Solar System.
 In 1980, three additional Saturnian moons were discovered from the ground and later confirmed by the
Voyager probes. They are
trojan moons of Dione (
Helene) and Tethys (
Observations by spacecraft
Four moons of Saturn can be seen on this image by the Cassini spacecraft: Huge Titan and Dione at the bottom, small Prometheus (under the rings) and tiny Telesto above center.
Five moons in another Cassini image: Rhea bisected in the foreground, Mimas behind it, bright Enceladus above and beyond the rings, Pandora eclipsed by the F Ring, and Janus off to the left.
The study of the outer planets has since been revolutionized by the use of unmanned space probes. The arrival of the
Voyager spacecraft at Saturn in 1980–1981 resulted in the discovery of three additional moons—
Pandora, bringing the total to 17.
 In addition, Epimetheus was confirmed as distinct from Janus. In 1990,
Pan was discovered in archival Voyager images.
 which arrived at Saturn in the summer of 2004, initially discovered three small inner moons including
Pallene between Mimas and Enceladus as well as the second trojan moon of Dione—
Polydeuces. It also observed three suspected but unconfirmed moons in the
 In November 2004 Cassini scientists announced that the structure of
Saturn's rings indicates the presence of several more moons orbiting within the rings, although only one,
Daphnis, had been visually confirmed at the time.
 In 2007
Anthe was announced.
 In 2008 it was reported that Cassini observations of a depletion of energetic electrons in Saturn's
Rhea might be the signature of a
tenuous ring system around Saturn's second largest moon.
 In March 2009,
Aegaeon, a moonlet within the G Ring, was announced.
 In July of the same year,
S/2009 S 1, the first moonlet within the B Ring, was observed.
 In April 2014, the possible beginning of a new
moon, within the
A Ring, was reported.
Study of Saturn's moons has also been aided by advances in telescope instrumentation, primarily the introduction of digital
charge-coupled devices which replaced photographic plates. For the entire 20th century, Phoebe stood alone among Saturn's known moons with its highly irregular orbit. Beginning in 2000, however, three dozen additional irregular moons have been discovered using ground-based telescopes.
 A survey starting in late 2000 and conducted using three medium-size telescopes found thirteen new moons orbiting Saturn at a great distance, in eccentric orbits, which are highly inclined to both the equator of Saturn and the
 They are probably fragments of larger bodies captured by Saturn's gravitational pull.
 In 2005, astronomers using the
Mauna Kea Observatory announced the discovery of twelve more small outer moons,
 in 2006, astronomers using the
Subaru 8.2 m telescope reported the discovery of nine more irregular moons,
 in April 2007,
Tarqeq (S/2007 S 1) was announced and in May of the same year
S/2007 S 2 and
S/2007 S 3 were reported.
Some of the 62 known satellites of Saturn are considered
lost because they have not been observed since their discovery and hence their orbits are not well-known enough to pinpoint their current locations. Work has been done to recover many of them in surveys from 2009 onwards, but seven –
S/2007 S 2,
S/2004 S 13,
S/2006 S 1,
S/2007 S 3,
S/2004 S 17,
S/2004 S 12, and
S/2004 S 7 – still remain lost today.
The modern names for Saturnian moons were suggested by
John Herschel in 1847.
 He proposed to name them after mythological figures associated with the Roman god of agriculture and harvest,
Saturn (equated to the Greek
 In particular, the then known seven satellites were named after
Titans, Titanesses and
Giants—brothers and sisters of Cronus.
 In 1848, Lassell proposed that the eighth satellite of Saturn be named Hyperion after another Titan.
 When in the 20th century the names of Titans were exhausted, the moons were named after different characters of the
Greco-Roman mythology or giants from other mythologies.
 All the irregular moons (except Phoebe) are named after
Gallic gods and after
Norse ice giants.
the same names as moons of Saturn:
1810 Epimetheus, and
4450 Pan. In addition, two more asteroids previously shared the names of Saturnian moons until spelling differences were made permanent by the
International Astronomical Union (IAU):
Calypso and asteroid
53 Kalypso; and
Helene and asteroid