Montenegro

Montenegro
Црна Гора
Crna Gora
Anthem: 
"Ој, свијетла мајска зоро"
"Oj, svijetla majska zoro"
(English: "Oh, Bright Dawn of May")
Location of  Montenegro  (Green) in Europe  (Dark Grey)  –  [Legend]
Location of  Montenegro  (Green)

in Europe  (Dark Grey)  –  [Legend]

Capital
and largest city
Podgorica
42°47′N 19°28′E / 42°47′N 19°28′E / 42.783; 19.467
Official languagesMontenegrina[1]
Writing systemCyrillic, Latin
Ethnic groups (2011[2])
Religion (2011)
DemonymMontenegrin
GovernmentUnitary dominant-party parliamentary constitutional republic
• President
Milo Đukanović
Duško Marković
• Speaker
Ivan Brajović
LegislatureParliament
Events
• Duklja gains independence from the Byzantine Empire
1042
• Kingdom of Zeta proclaimed
1373
1696
1 January 1852
• Kingdom
28 August 1910
• Formation of Yugoslavia
1 December 1918
15 November 1944
3 June 2006
Area
• Total
13,812 km2 (5,333 sq mi) (156th)
• Water (%)
2.6
Population
• 2017 estimate
Increase 642,550[3] (164th)
• 2011 census
620,029[4]
• Density
45/km2 (116.5/sq mi) (121st)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
• Total
$11.381 billion[5]
• Per capita
$18,261[5] (74th)
GDP (nominal)2017 estimate
• Total
$4.020 billion[6]
• Per capita
$6,424[6] (80th)
Gini (2013)26.2[7]
low · 9th
HDI (2017)Increase 0.814[8]
very high · 50th
CurrencyEuro ()b (EUR)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+2 (CEST)
Driving sideright
Calling code+382
ISO 3166 codeME
Internet TLD.me
  1. By Constitution, Serbian, Bosnian, Albanian and Croatian are in official use.[9]
  2. Adopted unilaterally; Montenegro is not a formal member of the Eurozone.

Montenegro (ɡ-/ (About this sound listen); Montenegrin: Црна Гора / Crna Gora [tsr̩̂ːnaː ɡɔ̌ra]) is a country in Southeastern Europe on the Adriatic Sea. It borders Bosnia and Herzegovina to the north; Serbia and Kosovo[a] to the east; Albania to the south and Croatia to the west. Montenegro has an area of 13,812 square kilometres and a population of 640,000, most of whom are Orthodox Christians. Its capital Podgorica is one of the twenty-three municipalities in the country. Cetinje is designated as the Old Royal Capital.

In the 9th century, three Serb principalities were located on the territory of modern-day Montenegro: Duklja, roughly corresponding to the southern half; Travunia, the west; and Rascia, the north.[10][11][12] In 1042, archon Stefan Vojislav led a revolt that resulted in the independence of Duklja from the Byzantine Empire and the establishment of the Vojislavljević dynasty. The independent Principality of Zeta emerged in the 14th and 15th centuries, ruled by the House of Balšić between 1356 and 1421, and by the House of Crnojević between 1431 and 1498, when the name Montenegro started being used for the country. After falling under Ottoman rule, Montenegro regained de facto independence in 1697 under the rule of the House of Petrović-Njegoš, first under the theocratic rule of prince-bishops, before being transformed into a secular principality in 1852. Montenegro's de jure independence was recognised by the Great Powers at the Congress of Berlin in 1878, following the Montenegrin–Ottoman War. In 1905, the country became a kingdom. After World War I, it became part of Yugoslavia. Following the breakup of Yugoslavia, the republics of Serbia and Montenegro together established a federation known as the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, which was renamed State Union of Serbia and Montenegro in 2003. On the basis of an independence referendum held in May 2006, Montenegro declared independence and the federation peacefully dissolved on 3 June of that year.

Since 1990, Montenegro has been governed by the Democratic Party of Socialists and its minor coalition partners. Classified by the World Bank as an upper middle-income country, Montenegro is a member of the UN, NATO, the World Trade Organization, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Council of Europe and the Central European Free Trade Agreement. It is a founding member of the Union for the Mediterranean.

Etymology

The country's name derives from Venetian and translates to "Black Mountain", deriving from the appearance of Mount Lovćen when covered in dense evergreen forests.[13]

The native name Crna Gora came to denote the majority of contemporary Montenegro only in the 15th century.[14] Originally, it had referred to only a small strip of land under the rule of the Paštrovići, but the name eventually came to be used for the wider mountainous region after the Crnojević noble family took power in Upper Zeta.[14] The aforementioned region became known as Stara Crna Gora 'Old Montenegro' by the 19th century to distinguish the independent region from the neighbouring Ottoman-occupied Montenegrin territory of Brda '(The) Highlands'. Montenegro further increased its size several times by the 20th century, as the result of wars against the Ottoman Empire, which saw the annexation of Old Herzegovina and parts of Metohija and southern Raška. Its borders have changed little since then, losing Metohija and gaining the Bay of Kotor.

After the second session of the AVNOJ during World War II in Yugoslavia, the modern state of Montenegro was founded as the Federal State of Montenegro (Montenegrin: Савезна држава Црне Горе / Savezna država Crne Gore) on 15 November 1943 within the Democratic Federal Yugoslavia by the ZAVNOCGB. After DF Yugoslavia became the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia, the Federal State of Montenegro was renamed to the People's Republic of Montenegro (Montenegrin: Народна Република Црна Гора / Narodna Republika Crna Gora) on 29 November 1945. In 1963, the FPRY was renamed to the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and coincidentally, the People's Republic of Montenegro was renamed to the Socialist Republic of Montenegro (Montenegrin: Социјалистичка Република Црна Гора / Socijalistička Republika Crna Gora). As the breakup of Yugoslavia occurred, the SRCG was renamed to the Republic of Montenegro (Montenegrin: Република Црна Гора / Republika Crna Gora) on 27 April 1992 within the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia by removing the adjective "socialist" from the republic's title. Since 22 October 2007, a year after its independence, the name of the country became simply known as Montenegro.

The ISO Alpha-2 code for Montenegro is ME and the Alpha-3 Code is MNE.[15]

Other Languages
Адыгэбзэ: БгыфӀыцӀей
адыгабзэ: Черногорие
Afrikaans: Montenegro
Alemannisch: Montenegro
አማርኛ: ሞንቴኔግሮ
Ænglisc: Sweartbeorg
العربية: الجبل الأسود
aragonés: Montenegro
armãneashti: Montenegro
arpetan: Montènègro
asturianu: Montenegru
Avañe'ẽ: Montenégyro
azərbaycanca: Monteneqro
تۆرکجه: مونتینیقرو
Bân-lâm-gú: Montenegro
башҡортса: Черногория
беларуская: Чарнагорыя
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Чарнагорыя
भोजपुरी: मोंटीनीग्रो
Bikol Central: Montenegro
Bislama: Montenegro
български: Черна гора
Boarisch: Montenegro
bosanski: Crna Gora
brezhoneg: Montenegro
буряад: Черногори
català: Montenegro
Чӑвашла: Хурату
Cebuano: Montenegro
čeština: Černá Hora
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Montenegro
chiShona: Montenegro
chiTumbuka: Montenegro
corsu: Montenegru
Cymraeg: Montenegro
dansk: Montenegro
davvisámegiella: Montenegro
Deutsch: Montenegro
ދިވެހިބަސް: މޮންޓެނީގުރޯ
dolnoserbski: Carnogórska
eesti: Montenegro
Ελληνικά: Μαυροβούνιο
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Mòntnégar
español: Montenegro
Esperanto: Montenegro
estremeñu: Montenegru
euskara: Montenegro
eʋegbe: Montenegro
Fiji Hindi: Montenegro
føroyskt: Montenegro
français: Monténégro
Frysk: Montenegro
Fulfulde: Montenegro
Gaelg: Montenegro
Gagauz: Karadaa
galego: Montenegro
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: माँटेनिग्रो
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Montenegro
한국어: 몬테네그로
Hausa: Montenegro
Hawaiʻi: Montenegero
հայերեն: Չեռնոգորիա
hornjoserbsce: Čorna Hora
hrvatski: Crna Gora
Ilokano: Montenegro
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: মন্টিনিগ্রো
Bahasa Indonesia: Montenegro
interlingua: Montenegro
Interlingue: Montenegro
isiZulu: IMontenegro
íslenska: Svartfjallaland
italiano: Montenegro
עברית: מונטנגרו
Basa Jawa: Montenégro
kalaallisut: Montenegro
къарачай-малкъар: Къаратау
ქართული: მონტენეგრო
kaszëbsczi: Czôrnogóra
қазақша: Черногория
kernowek: Montenegro
Kinyarwanda: Montenegoro
Kiswahili: Montenegro
Kreyòl ayisyen: Montenegwo
kurdî: Montenegro
Кыргызча: Монтенегро
Ladino: Montenegro
latgaļu: Malnkalneja
Latina: Mons Niger
latviešu: Melnkalne
Lëtzebuergesch: Montenegro
лезги: ЧIулавсув
lietuvių: Juodkalnija
Limburgs: Montenegro
lingála: Montenegro
Lingua Franca Nova: Tsernagora
Livvinkarjala: Montenegro
lumbaart: Muntnegher
magyar: Montenegró
македонски: Црна Гора
Malagasy: Montenegro
Malti: Montenegro
Māori: Montenegro
მარგალური: ჩერნოგორია
مازِرونی: مونته نگرو
Bahasa Melayu: Montenegro
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Montenegro
монгол: Монтенегро
Dorerin Naoero: Montenegro
Nederlands: Montenegro
Nedersaksies: Montenegro
Napulitano: Montenegro
Nordfriisk: Monteneegro
Norfuk / Pitkern: Montiniegrow
norsk: Montenegro
norsk nynorsk: Montenegro
Nouormand: Crna Gora
Novial: Montenegro
occitan: Montenegro
олык марий: Шемкурык Эл
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Qoratogʻ
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਮੋਂਟੇਨੇਗਰੋ
Pangasinan: Montenegro
پنجابی: مونٹی نیگرو
Papiamentu: Montenegro
Patois: Montenegro
Перем Коми: Цӧрнагора
Picard: Noérmont
Piemontèis: Montnèigr
Plattdüütsch: Montenegro
polski: Czarnogóra
Ποντιακά: Μαυροβούνιον
português: Montenegro
Qaraqalpaqsha: Montenegro
qırımtatarca: Montenegro
română: Muntenegru
Runa Simi: Yanaurqu
русиньскый: Чорна Гора
русский: Черногория
саха тыла: Черногория
Gagana Samoa: Montenegro
sardu: Montenegro
Scots: Montenegro
Seeltersk: Montenegro
shqip: Mali i Zi
sicilianu: Montenegru
Simple English: Montenegro
SiSwati: IMonthenekho
slovenčina: Čierna Hora
slovenščina: Črna gora
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Чрьна Гора
ślůnski: Czorno Gůra
Soomaaliga: Montenegro
Sranantongo: Montenegrokondre
српски / srpski: Црна Гора
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Crna Gora
Basa Sunda: Monténégro
suomi: Montenegro
svenska: Montenegro
Tagalog: Montenegro
Taqbaylit: Adrar aberkan
tarandíne: Mondegnure
татарча/tatarça: Монтенегро
tetun: Montenegru
тоҷикӣ: Монтенегро
Türkçe: Karadağ
Türkmençe: Çernogoriýa
тыва дыл: Черногория
українська: Чорногорія
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: مونته‌نەگرو
Vahcuengh: Montenegro
vèneto: Montenégro
vepsän kel’: Mustmägi
Tiếng Việt: Montenegro
Volapük: Montenegrän
West-Vlams: Montenegro
Winaray: Montenegro
Wolof: Montenegro
Xitsonga: Montenegro
ייִדיש: מאנטענעגרא
Yorùbá: Montenegro
粵語: 黑山
Zazaki: Montenegro
Zeêuws: Montenehro
žemaitėška: Joudkalnėjė