Monopoly

"I Like a Little Competition"—J. P. Morgan by Art Young. Cartoon relating to the answer J. P. Morgan gave when asked whether he disliked competition at the Pujo Committee.[1]

A monopoly (from Greek μόνος mónos ["alone" or "single"] and πωλεῖν pōleîn ["to sell"]) exists when a specific person or enterprise is the only supplier of a particular commodity. This contrasts with a monopsony which relates to a single entity's control of a market to purchase a good or service, and with oligopoly which consists of a few sellers dominating a market.[2] Monopolies are thus characterized by a lack of economic competition to produce the good or service, a lack of viable substitute goods, and the possibility of a high monopoly price well above the seller's marginal cost that leads to a high monopoly profit.[3] The verb monopolise or monopolize refers to the process by which a company gains the ability to raise prices or exclude competitors. In economics, a monopoly is a single seller. In law, a monopoly is a business entity that has significant market power, that is, the power to charge overly high prices.[4] Although monopolies may be big businesses, size is not a characteristic of a monopoly. A small business may still have the power to raise prices in a small industry (or market).[4]

A monopoly is distinguished from a monopsony, in which there is only one buyer of a product or service; a monopoly may also have monopsony control of a sector of a market. Likewise, a monopoly should be distinguished from a cartel (a form of oligopoly), in which several providers act together to coordinate services, prices or sale of goods. Monopolies, monopsonies and oligopolies are all situations in which one or a few entities have market power and therefore interact with their customers (monopoly or oligopoly), or suppliers (monopsony) in ways that distort the market.[citation needed]

Monopolies can be established by a government, form naturally, or form by integration.

In many jurisdictions, competition laws restrict monopolies. Holding a dominant position or a monopoly in a market is often not illegal in itself, however certain categories of behavior can be considered abusive and therefore incur legal sanctions when business is dominant. A government-granted monopoly or legal monopoly, by contrast, is sanctioned by the state, often to provide an incentive to invest in a risky venture or enrich a domestic interest group. Patents, copyrights, and trademarks are sometimes used as examples of government-granted monopolies. The government may also reserve the venture for itself, thus forming a government monopoly.[citation needed]

Monopolies may be naturally occurring due to limited competition because the industry is resource intensive and requires substantial costs to operate.

Market structures

In economics, the idea of monopoly is important in the study of management structures, which directly concerns normative aspects of economic competition, and provides the basis for topics such as industrial organization and economics of regulation. There are four basic types of market structures in traditional economic analysis: perfect competition, monopolistic competition, oligopoly and monopoly. A monopoly is a structure in which a single supplier produces and sells a given product. If there is a single seller in a certain market and there are no close substitutes for the product, then the market structure is that of a "pure monopoly". Sometimes, there are many sellers in an industry and/or there exist many close substitutes for the goods being produced, but nevertheless companies retain some market power. This is termed monopolistic competition, whereas in oligopoly the companies interact strategically.

In general, the main results from this theory compare price-fixing methods across market structures, analyze the effect of a certain structure on welfare, and vary technological/demand assumptions in order to assess the consequences for an abstract model of society. Most economic textbooks follow the practice of carefully explaining the perfect competition model, mainly because this helps to understand "departures" from it (the so-called imperfect competition models).

The boundaries of what constitutes a market and what does not are relevant distinctions to make in economic analysis. In a general equilibrium context, a good is a specific concept including geographical and time-related characteristics ("grapes sold during October 2009 in Moscow" is a different good from "grapes sold during October 2009 in New York"). Most studies of market structure relax a little their definition of a good, allowing for more flexibility in the identification of substitute goods.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Monopolie
العربية: احتكار
asturianu: Monopoliu
azərbaycanca: İnhisar
Bahasa Banjar: Kuluh
Bân-lâm-gú: To̍k-chiàm
беларуская: Манаполія
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Манаполія
български: Монопол
bosanski: Monopol
català: Monopoli
čeština: Monopol
Cymraeg: Monopoli
dansk: Monopol
Deutsch: Monopol
eesti: Monopol
Ελληνικά: Μονοπώλιο
español: Monopolio
Esperanto: Monopolo
euskara: Monopolio
فارسی: انحصار
føroyskt: Einahandil
français: Monopole
Gaeilge: Monaplacht
galego: Monopolio
한국어: 독점
հայերեն: Մենաշնորհ
हिन्दी: एकाधिकार
hrvatski: Monopol
Bahasa Indonesia: Pasar monopoli
interlingua: Monopolio
íslenska: Einokun
italiano: Monopolio
עברית: מונופול
Kiswahili: Uhodhisoko
Latina: Monopolium
latviešu: Monopols
Lëtzebuergesch: Monopol
lietuvių: Monopolija
Lingua Franca Nova: Monopolio
magyar: Monopólium
македонски: Монопол
मराठी: एकाधिकार
مصرى: احتكار
Bahasa Melayu: Monopoli
Nederlands: Monopolie
日本語: 独占
norsk: Monopol
norsk nynorsk: Monopol
occitan: Monopòli
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Monopoliya
پښتو: انحصار
polski: Monopol
português: Monopólio
română: Monopol
русский: Монополия
Scots: Monopoly
shqip: Monopoli
Simple English: Monopoly
سنڌي: ھڪھٽي
slovenčina: Monopol ponuky
slovenščina: Monopol
српски / srpski: Монопол
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Monopol
suomi: Monopoli
svenska: Monopol
Tagalog: Monopolyo
தமிழ்: ஏகபோகம்
Türkçe: Tekel
українська: Монополія
文言: 壟斷
ייִדיש: מאנאפאל
粵語: 壟斷
中文: 垄断