Mohammad Mosaddegh

Mohammad Mosaddegh
Mohmmad,Mosaddegh2 (cropped).jpg
35th Prime Minister of Iran
In office
21 July 1952 – 19 August 1953
MonarchMohammad Reza Pahlavi
Preceded byAhmad Qavam
Succeeded byFazlollah Zahedi
In office
28 April 1951 – 16 July 1952
MonarchMohammad Reza Pahlavi
Preceded byHossein Ala'
Succeeded byAhmad Qavam
Minister of National Defence
In office
21 July 1952 – 19 August 1953
MonarchMohammad Reza Pahlavi
Prime MinisterHimself
Preceded byMostafa Yazdanpanah
Succeeded byAbdollah Hedayat
Member of the Parliament
In office
9 February 1950 – 27 April 1951
MonarchMohammad Reza Pahlavi
ConstituencyTehran
Majority30,738 (ranked 1st)
In office
7 March 1944 – 12 March 1946
MonarchMohammad Reza Pahlavi
ConstituencyTehran
MajorityRanked 1st
In office
11 July 1926 – 13 August 1928
MonarchReza Shah Pahlavi
ConstituencyTehran
In office
11 February 1924 – 11 February 1926
MonarchAhmad Shah Qajar
ConstituencyTehran
MajorityRanked 3rd
In office
Unable to assume office in 1906
MonarchMozaffar ad-Din Shah Qajar
ConstituencyIsfahan
Minister of Foreign Affairs
In office
30 May 1923 – 23 September 1923
MonarchAhmad Shah Qajar
Prime MinisterHassan Pirnia
Preceded byMohammad-Ali Foroughi
Succeeded byMohammad-Ali Foroughi
In office
30 September 1921 – 8 October 1921
MonarchAhmad Shah Qajar
Prime MinisterAhmad Qavam
Preceded byHassan Esfandiari
Succeeded byAssadollah Ghadimi
Vali of Azerbaijan State
In office
17 February 1922 – 12 July 1922
MonarchAhmad Shah Qajar
Prime MinisterHassan Pirnia
Succeeded byAmanullah Jahanbani
Minister of Finance
In office
21 November 1921 – 7 January 1922
MonarchAhmad Shah Qajar
Prime MinisterAhmad Qavam
Vali of Fars State
In office
11 October 1920 – 22 March 1921
MonarchAhmad Shah Qajar
Prime MinisterHassan Pirnia
Personal details
Born
Mirza Mohammad-Khan Mossadegh-ol-Saltaneh

(1882-06-16)16 June 1882
Tehran, Persia
Died5 March 1967(1967-03-05) (aged 84)
Ahmadabad-e Mosaddeq, Iran
Political party
Spouse(s)Zahra Khanum (1901–1965; her death)
Children5
Alma materParis Institute of Political Studies
University of Neuchâtel
Signature

Mohammad Mosaddegh[a] (Persian: محمد مصدق‎; IPA: [mohæmˈmæd(-e) mosædˈdeɢ] (About this soundlisten);[b] 16 June 1882 – 5 March 1967) was the 35th prime minister of Iran, holding office from 1951 until 1953, when his government was overthrown in a coup d'état orchestrated by the United States' Central Intelligence Agency and the United Kingdom's MI6.[4][5]

An author, administrator, lawyer and prominent parliamentarian, his administration introduced a range of social and political measures such as social security, land reforms and higher taxes including the introduction of taxation of the rent on land. His government's most significant policy, however, was the nationalization of the Iranian oil industry, which had been built by the British on Persian lands since 1913 through the Anglo-Persian Oil Company (APOC/AIOC) (later British Petroleum and BP).[6]

Many Iranians regard Mosaddegh as the leading champion of secular democracy and resistance to foreign domination in Iran's modern history. Following an initial, failed coup attempt by the CIA/MI6-backed General Fazlollah Zahedi, Mosaddegh was successfully deposed four days later on 19 August 1953, with Zahedi succeeding him as prime minister.[7]

While the coup is at times referred to in the West as Operation Ajax[8] after its CIA cryptonym, in Iran it is referred to as the 28 Mordad 1332 Coup d'état, after its date on the Iranian calendar.[9] Mosaddegh was imprisoned for three years, then put under house arrest until his death and was buried in his own home so as to prevent a political furor.[10][11][12] In 2013, the U.S. government formally acknowledged the U.S. role in the coup, as a part of its foreign policy initiatives.[13]

Early life

Mosaddegh was born to a prominent Persian family of high officials in Tehran on 16 June 1882; his father, Mirza Hideyatu'llah Ashtiani, was a finance minister under the Qajar dynasty, and his mother, Princess Malek Taj Najm-es-Saltaneh, was the granddaughter of the reformist Qajar prince Abbas Mirza, and a great-granddaughter of Fath-Ali Shah Qajar.[14][15][16] When Mosaddegh's father died in 1892, his uncle was appointed the tax collector of the Khorasan province and was bestowed with the title of Mosaddegh-os-Saltaneh by Nasser al-Din Shah.[17] Mosaddegh himself later bore the same title, by which he was still known to some long after titles were abolished.[18]

In 1901, Mosaddegh married Zahra Khanum (1879–1965), a granddaughter of Nasser al-Din Shah through her mother. The couple had five children, two sons (Ahmad and Ghulam Hussein) and three daughters (Mansura, Zia Ashraf, and Khadija).

Education

A young Mosaddegh

In 1909, Mosaddegh pursued education abroad in Paris, France where he studied law at the Institut d'études politiques de Paris (Sciences Po). He studied there for 2 years, returning to Iran because of illness in 1911. After 5 months, Mosaddegh returned to Europe to study a Doctorate of Laws (doctorate en Droit) at the University of Neuchâtel in Switzerland.[19] In June 1913, Mosaddegh received his doctorate and in doing so became the first Iranian to receive a PhD in Law from a European university.[20]

Mosaddegh taught at the Tehran School of Political Science at the start of World War I before beginning his political career.[21]

Early political career

Mosaddegh started his political career with the Iranian Constitutional Revolution of 1905–07. At the age of 24, he was elected from Isfahan to the newly inaugurated Persian Parliament, the Majlis of Iran. However, he was unable to assume his seat, because he had not reached the legal age of 30.[22]

During this period he also served as deputy leader of the Society of Humanity, under Mostowfi ol-Mamalek.[23] In protest at the Anglo-Persian Treaty of 1919, he relocated to Switzerland, from where he returned the following year after being invited by the new Iranian prime minister, Hassan Pirnia (Moshir-ed-Dowleh), to become his minister of justice. While en route to Tehran, he was asked by the people of Shiraz to become the governor of the Fars Province. He was later appointed finance minister, in the government of Ahmad Qavam (Qavam os-Saltaneh) in 1921, and then foreign minister in the government of Moshir-ed-Dowleh in June 1923. He then became governor of the Azerbaijan Province. In 1923, he was re-elected to the Majlis.

In 1925, the supporters of Reza Khan in the Majlis proposed legislation to dissolve the Qajar dynasty and appoint Reza Khan the new Shah. Mossadegh voted against such a move, arguing that such an act was a subversion of the 1906 Iranian constitution. He gave a speech in the Majlis, praising Reza Khan's achievements as prime minister while encouraging him to respect the constitution and stay as the prime minister. On 12 December 1925, the Majlis deposed the young Shah Ahmad Shah Qajar, and declared Reza Shah the new monarch of the Imperial State of Persia, and the first Shah of the Pahlavi dynasty.[24] Mosaddegh then retired from politics, due to disagreements with the new regime.[25][26]

In 1941, Reza Shah Pahlavi was forced by the British to abdicate in favor of his son Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. In 1944, Mosaddegh was once again elected to parliament. This time he took the lead of Jebhe Melli (National Front of Iran, created in 1949), an organization he had founded with nineteen others such as Hossein Fatemi, Ahmad Zirakzadeh, Ali Shayegan and Karim Sanjabi, aiming to establish democracy and end the foreign presence in Iranian politics, especially by nationalizing the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company's (AIOC) operations in Iran. In 1947 Mossadegh once again announced retirement, after an electoral-reform bill he had proposed failed to pass through Majlis.[27]

Other Languages
العربية: محمد مصدق
azərbaycanca: Məhəmməd Müsəddiq
تۆرکجه: محمد مصدق
Bân-lâm-gú: Mohammad Mosaddegh
Esperanto: Mohamed Mosadek
فارسی: محمد مصدق
گیلکی: محمد مصدق
Bahasa Indonesia: Mohammad Mosaddegh
مازِرونی: ممد مصدق
Nederlands: Mohammad Mossadeq
norsk nynorsk: Mohammad Mossadegh
português: Mohammed Mossadegh
Simple English: Mohammad Mosaddegh
slovenščina: Mohamed Mosadek
српски / srpski: Мохамед Мосадик
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Muhamed Mosadek
українська: Мохаммед Мосаддик