Mobile phone

Evolution of mobile phones, to an early smartphone

A mobile phone, known as a cell phone in North America, is a portable telephone that can make and receive calls over a radio frequency link while the user is moving within a telephone service area. The radio frequency link establishes a connection to the switching systems of a mobile phone operator, which provides access to the public switched telephone network (PSTN). Modern mobile telephone services use a cellular network architecture, and, therefore, mobile telephones are called cellular telephones or cell phones, in North America. In addition to telephony, 2000s-era mobile phones support a variety of other services, such as text messaging, MMS, email, Internet access, short-range wireless communications (infrared, Bluetooth), business applications, video games, and digital photography. Mobile phones offering only those capabilities are known as feature phones; mobile phones which offer greatly advanced computing capabilities are referred to as smartphones.

The first handheld mobile phone was demonstrated by John F. Mitchell[1][2] and Martin Cooper of Motorola in 1973, using a handset weighing c. 2 kilograms (4.4 lbs).[3] In 1979, Nippon Telegraph and Telephone (NTT) launched the world's first cellular network in Japan.[4] In 1983, the DynaTAC 8000x was the first commercially available handheld mobile phone. From 1983 to 2014, worldwide mobile phone subscriptions grew to over seven billion.[5] In first quarter of 2016, the top smartphone developers worldwide were Samsung, Apple, and Huawei, with smartphone sales represented 78 percent of total mobile phone sales.[6] For feature phones (or "dumbphones") as of 2016, the largest were Samsung, Nokia, and Alcatel.[7]

History

Martin Cooper of Motorola made the first publicized handheld mobile phone call on a prototype DynaTAC model on April 4, 1973. This is a reenactment in 2007.

A handheld mobile radio telephone service was envisioned in the early stages of radio engineering. In 1917, Finnish inventor Eric Tigerstedt filed a patent for a "pocket-size folding telephone with a very thin carbon microphone". Early predecessors of cellular phones included analog radio communications from ships and trains. The race to create truly portable telephone devices began after World War II, with developments taking place in many countries. The advances in mobile telephony have been traced in successive "generations", starting with the early zeroth-generation (0G) services, such as Bell System's Mobile Telephone Service and its successor, the Improved Mobile Telephone Service. These 0G systems were not cellular, supported few simultaneous calls, and were very expensive.

The Motorola DynaTAC 8000X. First commercially available handheld cellular mobile phone, 1984.

The first handheld cellular mobile phone was demonstrated by John F. Mitchell[1][2] and Martin Cooper of Motorola in 1973, using a handset weighing 2 kilograms (4.4 lb).[3] The first commercial automated cellular network was launched in Japan by Nippon Telegraph and Telephone in 1979. This was followed in 1981 by the simultaneous launch of the Nordic Mobile Telephone (NMT) system in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden.[8] Several other countries then followed in the early to mid-1980s. These first-generation (1G) systems could support far more simultaneous calls but still used analog cellular technology. In 1983, the DynaTAC 8000x was the first commercially available handheld mobile phone.

In 1991, the second-generation (2G) digital cellular technology was launched in Finland by Radiolinja on the GSM standard. This sparked competition in the sector as the new operators challenged the incumbent 1G network operators.

Ten years later, in 2001, the third generation (3G) was launched in Japan by NTT DoCoMo on the WCDMA standard.[9] This was followed by 3.5G, 3G+ or turbo 3G enhancements based on the high-speed packet access (HSPA) family, allowing UMTS networks to have higher data transfer speeds and capacity.

By 2009, it had become clear that, at some point, 3G networks would be overwhelmed by the growth of bandwidth-intensive applications, such as streaming media.[10] Consequently, the industry began looking to data-optimized fourth-generation technologies, with the promise of speed improvements up to ten-fold over existing 3G technologies. The first two commercially available technologies billed as 4G were the WiMAX standard, offered in North America by Sprint, and the LTE standard, first offered in Scandinavia by TeliaSonera.

Other Languages
Acèh: Hapé
Afrikaans: Selfoon
አማርኛ: ነፋስ ስልክ
Ænglisc: Handsprecend
العربية: هاتف محمول
অসমীয়া: ম’বাইল ফোন
asturianu: Teléfonu móvil
Aymar aru: Celular
azərbaycanca: Mobil telefon
bamanankan: Telefɔni yaalata
Bân-lâm-gú: Hêng-tōng tiān-oē
башҡортса: Кеҫә телефоны
беларуская: Мабільны тэлефон
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Мабільны тэлефон
भोजपुरी: मोबाइल फोन
Bislama: Phone
български: Мобилен телефон
Boarisch: Handy
bosanski: Mobilni telefon
čeština: Mobilní telefon
chiShona: Nhareyamado
Cymraeg: Ffôn symudol
Deitsch: Sackfoohn
Deutsch: Mobiltelefon
Esperanto: Poŝtelefono
føroyskt: Fartelefon
Gaeilge: Fón póca
Gaelg: Shooylagh
Gàidhlig: Fòn-làimh
贛語: 手機
ગુજરાતી: મોબાઇલ ફોન
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Hàng-thung thien-fa
한국어: 휴대 전화
hrvatski: Mobilni telefon
Bahasa Indonesia: Telepon genggam
interlingua: Telephono mobile
íslenska: Farsími
Basa Jawa: Tilpun sélulèr
къарачай-малкъар: Мобил телефон
қазақша: Ұялы телефон
Kiswahili: Simu za mikononi
Кыргызча: Уюлдук телефон
Limburgs: Hendie
magyar: Mobiltelefon
македонски: Мобилен телефон
Malagasy: Finday
മലയാളം: മൊബൈൽ ഫോൺ
مصرى: موبايل
Bahasa Melayu: Telefon bimbit
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Chiū-gĭ
монгол: Гар утас
မြန်မာဘာသာ: မိုဘိုင်းလ်ဖုန်း
Nederlands: Mobiele telefoon
नेपाली: मोबाईल फोन
नेपाल भाषा: मोबाइल फोन
日本語: 携帯電話
norsk nynorsk: Mobiltelefon
Oromoo: Mobile
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Mobil telefon
پنجابی: موبائل فون
Patois: Mobail fuon
português: Telefone celular
Qaraqalpaqsha: Mobil telefon
română: Telefon mobil
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱢᱳᱵᱟᱭᱤᱞ ᱯᱷᱳᱱ
sicilianu: Tilifuninu
Simple English: Mobile phone
slovenčina: Mobilný telefón
slovenščina: Prenosni telefon
ślůnski: Mobilńok
Soomaaliga: Mobile
کوردی: مۆبایل
српски / srpski: Мобилни телефон
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Mobilni telefon
Basa Sunda: Telepon keupeul
svenska: Mobiltelefoni
татарча/tatarça: Кесә телефоны
Türkçe: Cep telefonu
Thuɔŋjäŋ: Ariiŋwël
українська: Мобільний телефон
vèneto: Telefonin
文言: 手機
Winaray: Mobile phone
吴语: 手机
ייִדיש: צעלפאן
粵語: 手提電話
中文: 移动电话